Sugar Tech. The modern milling process at Mitr Phuveing Sugar factory takes less than 10 min from cane stalk to mixed juice stage before the liming process. However, the microorganisms still affect sugar yield in the factory. The efficacy of dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride DBAC and microbial contamination in the sugar cane juice from milling process were studied. The results showed that 2 and 6 ppm of DBAC cannot inhibit all kinds of microorganism within 10 minutes.
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Corn wet-millingVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Microbiological Control in a Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Environment
Contents - Previous - Next. Flour made by grinding whole grain is occasionally used, particularly with the smaller millets, but in most places where sorghum and millets are consumed the grain is partially separated into its constituents before food is prepared from it.
The first objective of processing is usually to remove some of the hull or bran - the fibrous outer layers of the grain. This is usually done by pounding followed by winnowing or sieving. The grain may first be moistened with about 10 percent water or soaked overnight.
When hard grains are pounded, the endosperm remains relatively intact and can be separated from the heavy grits by winnowing. With soft grains, the endosperm breaks into small particles and the pericarp can be separated by winnowing and screening. When suitably prepared grain is pounded, the bran fraction contains most of the pericarp, along with some germ and endosperm. This traction is usually ted to domestic animals.
The other fraction, containing most of the endosperm and much of the germ along with some pericarp, is retained for human consumption. Retaining the germ in the flour will improve aspects of its nutritional quality, but at the same time it will increase the rate at which the flour will become rancid. This is particularly important in the case of pearl millet. Dry, moistened or wet grain is normally pounded with a wooden pestle in a wooden or stone mortar. Moistening the grain by adding about 10 percent water facilitates not only the removal of the fibrous bran, but also separation of the germ and the endosperm, if desired.
Although this practice produces a slightly moist flour, many people temper the grain in this way before they pound it. Pounding moist or dry grain by hand is very laborious, time consuming and inefficient.
A woman working hard with a pestle and mortar can at best only decorticate 1. Pounding gives a non-uniform product that has poor keeping qualities. Many pearl millet grains have an irregular indentation in the pericarp. This makes it more difficult to decorticate pearl millet than it is to decorticate most other cereal grains Kent, The particle size of the endosperm fraction can be reduced by crushing or grinding to produce coarse grits or fine flour.
This unpleasantly hard work is almost always done by women. Traditional grinding stones used to grind whole or decorticated grain to flour usually consist of a small stone which is held in the hand and a larger flat stone which is placed on the ground Subramanian and Jambunathan, ; Vogel and Graham, Grain, which should be fairly dry, is crushed and pulverized by the backward and forward movement of the hand-held stone on the lower stone.
The work is very laborious, and it is hard work for anyone to grind more than 2 kg of flour in an hour. In a traditional process used in many countries of Africa and Asia, decorticated grain is crushed to a coarse flour either with a pestle and mortar or between stones.
Grain is also ground to coarse or fine flour in mechanized disk mills now located in many villages. In wet milling, the sorghum or millet is soaked in water overnight and sometimes longer and then ground to a batter by hand, often between two stones. Soaking makes the endosperm very soft and the pericarp quite tough and makes grinding much easier, but it gives a batter or paste instead of flour. Malting involves germinating grain and allowing it to sprout.
Typically the grain is soaked for 16 to 24 hours, which allows it to absorb sufficient moisture for germination and for sprouts to appear. However, germinated sorghum rootless and sprouts contain very large amounts of dhurrin, a cyanogenic glucoside, which on hydrolysis produces a potent toxin variously known as prussic acid, hydrocyanic acid HCN and cyanide Panasiuk and Bills, The fresh shoots and rootless of germinated sorghum and their extracts must therefore never be consumed, either by people or by animals, except in very small quantities e.
Dada and Dendy showed that the removal of shoots and roots and subsequent processing reduced the HCN content by more than 90 percent. Malted sorghum has traditionally been used in several countries in Africa, but always after careful removal of the toxic parts. Hullu-murr is an important traditional food prepared from malted sorghum in the Sudan Bureng, Badi and Monawar, Alcoholic beverages and dumplings are prepared in Kenya from germinated sorghum and millet.
In the germination process, the grain produces a-amylase, an enzyme that converts insoluble starch to soluble sugars. This has the effect of thinning paste made by heating a slurry of starch in water, in turn allowing a higher caloric density in paste of a given viscosity, since as much as three times more flour can be used when the grain has been germinated.
The energy that young children can consume is often limited by the bulk that they can consume. Thus using germinated grain can make food more suitable for certain categories of young children. Flour from malted grain is consequently used quite widely in the production of children's food, but when such foods are made from sorghum, great care must always be taken to ensure that the level of cyanide is adequately low, as children are particularly vulnerable to cyanide.
In India, malted finger millet is common and is considered to be superior to malted sorghum and malted maize. Studies have shown that finger millet develops higher amylase activity than sorghum and other millets Seenappa, Germination of grain is reported to change the amino acid composition, convert starch into sugars and improve the availability of fat, vitamins and minerals.
Pal, Wagle and Sheorain measured the changes in the constituents of sorghum and various millets finger, pearl, prove, kodo and barnyard during malting. The malting losses for finger millet and foxtail millet were high. Pearl millet had the highest a-amylase activity. Amylolytic and proteolytic enzyme levels in malted pearl millet were comparable to those in malted barley. The use of only 5 percent malted sorghum or finger millet was found to reduce the viscosity of weaning foods Mosha and Svanberg, ; Seenappa, To produce a particular type of tortilla that is popular in Mexico, sorghum grains are cooked in lime water for a short time and steeped overnight, washed to remove the excess alkali and then ground to a paste Rizley and Suter, Wood ash is used in traditional treatments to reduce the level of tannin in brown sorghums and improve the nutritional quality.
Muindi and Thomke reported the use of wood ash in the United Republic of Tanzania. Mukuru described a tannin-reducing technique used in parts of eastern and central Africa where, because of grain-eating birds, only "high-tannin" sorghums are grown. The sorghum is first soaked overnight in a slurry of wood ash in water. After draining it is left for three or four days to germinate. The germinated grains are sun-dried and pounded to loosen the adhering wood ash and to remove the sprouts, with their high levels of cyanide.
The grain is then ground and used to prepare either a non-alcoholic beverage called obushara or an alcoholic drink containing about 3 percent alcohol called omuramba. Parboiling is reported to help in dehusking kodo millet Shrestha, and to eliminate the stickiness in cooked finger millet porridge Desikachar, While there are many machines available for processing hard white sorghum, there is unfortunately no well-proven industrial process available that is entirely satisfactory for making white products from coloured sorghums and millets.
Cereal grains can be milled wet, in the form of a thin aqueous slurry, usually to produce starch, or in an essentially dry form often suitably dampened or "tempered" which usually produces meal coarse or fine flour.
A factory in Texas, United States, for wet milling sorghum operated intermittently from the s to the s Rooney, but is now closed. No millets have ever been wet milled commercially to produce starch. The following technologies are all for dry and semi-wet milling. In industrial processing, once the grain has been cleaned, the first operation is usually the separation of offal the portion not normally used for human consumption from the edible portion.
The offal consists of the pericarp and sometimes the germ. Offal removal is frequently called decortication or dehulling. Following the removal of offal, the edible portion is often milled to reduce the particle size of the edible fraction. There is usually a choice of techniques and mills that may be used for particle size reduction if a finer product is desired.
Some of the earliest research and development work on milling technology for pearl millet and sorghum was promoted by FAO in , initially on a laboratory scale in Senegal and later on a semi-industrial scale in the Sudan. The conclusion was reached that the technology for milling wheat is not optimal for milling sorghum and millet Perter, Most industrial operations that can be carried out on untreated grain can also be used with grain that hats been prepared in some way, for example grain that has been germinated and then suitably dried.
Three types of processors can be used to mill sorghum and millets on a commercial scale: abrasive decorticators, which abrade the pericarp away, i. Abrasive decorticators work by abrading away the fibrous pericarp. Obviously, the outer layers of the seed-coat are abraded away first and the innermost layers, which in many varieties contain those factors that most need to be removed, are the last to be abraded away. If all parts of all grains could be abraded away at the same rate, abrasive decortication would be an efficient way of removing the pericarp.
However, different parts of individual grains are abraded away at very different rates, and there is some loss of endosperm particularly from damaged grains even when the grain is only lightly abraded. Also, non-spherical seeds, e.
When hard white sorghum grains, uncontaminated with seeds with a red testa, are decorticated in an abrasive decorticator, any pericarp left on the grain is hard to see, and when the pearled grain is milled, the presence of pericarp goes largely unnoticed. However, the ability of abrasive decorticators to produce an adequately white product falls sharply with increasing levels of contamination from seeds with a coloured seed-coat.
When the contaminating seeds have a red testa which is deeply coloured and is practically the last layer to be abraded away a decorticator's ability to produce an acceptably white product falls even more sharply. The problem is compounded by the fact that many contaminating seeds are comparatively soft and their exposed endosperm is ground away quickly.
As a result, milling yields often fall to unacceptably low levels. Decorticators produce what is visually a very acceptable product in a good yield from grain well suited to abrasive decortication.
However, if the grain to be ground is not always going to consist of a very high proportion of hard, white, spherical seeds of fairly regular size, a very careful analysis of the economics of operating an abrasive decorticator should be made on the basis of recovery rates derived from trial runs.
Even though decorticators are well suited to small-scale operations, these machines have often proved to be too large for the system into which they were introduced. In many cases they have been introduced less successfully than originally hoped, either because of a lack of supplies of the high-quality grain that is needed for them to work properlyor because of insufficient local demand for the product. Very small units are likely to be run less efficiently than larger ones.
This type of decorticator has the enormous advantages of being relatively inexpensive to install and relatively simple to maintain and operate. Bassey and Schmidt described the development of this type of decorticator and its use in Africa. More recently it has been introduced in India. In , a prototype decorticator was established in Maiduguri, Nigeria.
A larger unit to process 5 to 10 tonnes of sorghum per day was installed at Pitsane in southern Botswana in but the demand for the product was inadequate to keep the equipment running at full capacity. The capacity of this decorticator also exceeded the demand for the product. FRC is currently decorticating white sorghum for a local urban market.
The centre has also produced pearled sorghum as a substitute for rice Bad , Perten and Abert, ; although the product has to be cooked much longer than rice, it was well accepted. Of the five most popular varieties of sorghum grown in the Sudan, two Feterita and Mayo are unsuitable for abrasive decortication.
James and Nyambati described the industrial preparation of pearled brown and white sorghum in Kenya using a decorticator that could mill sorghum in batches or continuously, but they found it was difficult to obtain sufficient sorghum suitable for processing. The product was sold at 60 percent of the price of rice and consumer acceptance was very good.
The number one priority of every manufacturing company and specifically flour millers is to compete favorably and possibly control the largest market share. This ambitious target or goal can only be achieved by the production of consistently good quality products for the customers. What is quality? In order to assure continued satisfaction from customers, everyone must understand firstly what quality is and what it is not.
Good manufacturing practices: Dairy processors
The Scheme aims at facilitating technology upgradation by providing upfront capital subsidy to SSI units, including tiny, khadi, village and coir industrial units, on institutional finance credit availed of by them for modernisation of their production equipment plant and machinery and techniques. The eligible amount of subsidy calculated under the pre-revised scheme was based on the actual loan amount not exceeding Rs. It is in this background that the Finance Minister made an announcement in the Budget Speech of to raise the ceiling for loans under the Scheme from Rs. Further, in the light of the experience gathered in implementing the Scheme, certain other modifications were also required to make it more useful to the SSI units, including tiny, khadi, village and coir industrial units, in taking up technology upgradation on a larger scale.
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This volume discusses recent advancements to the age old practice of using microbial enzymes in the preparation of food. Written by leading experts in the field, it discusses novel enzymes and their applications in the industrial preparation of food to improve taste and texture, while reducing cost and increasing consistency. This book will be of interest to both researchers and students working in food technology. A Potential Enzyme for the Food Industry. An EcoFriendly Alternative. Industrial Applications in Food Products. A Promising Tool for Food Industry.
Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table 1. The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing. This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries. Other articles in this chapter and Encyclopaedia deal with particular food industry sectors and particular hazards. The food industry today has become highly diversified, with manufacturing ranging from small, traditional, family-run activities that are highly labour intensive, to large, capital-intensive and highly mechanized industrial processes. Many food industries depend almost entirely on local agriculture or fishing. In the past, this meant seasonal production and hiring of seasonal workers. Improvements in food processing and preservation technologies have taken some of the pressure off workers to process food quickly to prevent spoilage. This has resulted in a decrease in seasonal employment fluctuations.
Microbial Lipases and Their Industrial Applications: Review
This practice makes use of alternative materials, requires less energy, and diminishes pollutants in industrial effluents, as well as being more economically advantageous due to its reduced costs. Considering this scenario, the use of residues from agroindustrial, forestry and urban sources in bioprocesses has aroused the interest of the scientific community lately. Notably, the microbial enzymes can be the products themselves as well as tools in these bioprocesses.
It is a fact that one of the basic conditions of ensuring the food safety at high levels is supplying low-risk raw materials. Producing the flour and flour products in accordance with food safety begins with obtaining safe wheat. It is stated in the notification that the flour should be produced in accordance with food safety. Thus, as well as flour industrialist has the main responsibility for providing flour safety; the farmers producing the wheat, the persons carrying out the harvest and transportation operations and traders should also apply hygiene and sanitation rules in their operations. As the absolute right of the consumers, food safety is a concept expressed as set of measures that should be taken at each stage from production to consumption for making the food products not constituting health problems for humans. In order to achieve the flour safety from the field to the table; the wheat should be grown by good agricultural practices GAP and milled by good manufacturing practices GMP and good hygiene practices GHD. With this standard it is aimed to establish a system based on hygiene and sanitation in the food businesses for ensuring the food safety at the highest level via the methods like forming interactive communication, system management and pre-requisite programs; reducing crop losses and costs and using HACCP hazard analysis critical control point plans. Food hygiene is providing the conditions necessary for keeping all threats and risks that can cause health problems under control and preventing the consumer from any disease through food products. Sanitation is described as making the cleaning operations necessary for purifying the environment from disease-causing factors systematically. Applied food safety and quality systems should ensure the cleanliness, hygiene and quality expectations. The flour industry has the low food safety perception because of the reasons like that water content of the flour is low; it is not a product ready for consumption directly and baking operation is applied to the flour products before the consumption.
All the contents of www. The Project envisages the development of a common methodology for the preparation, storage, dissemination and evaluation of scientific literature in electronic format. As the project develops, new journal titles are being added in the library collection. The objective of the site is to implement an electronic virtual library, providing full access to a collection of serial titles, a collection of issues from individual serial titles, as well as to the full text of articles. The access to both serial titles and articles is available via indexes and search forms. The site will be constantly updated both in form and content, according to the project's advancements. SciELO interface provides access to its serials collection via an alphabetic list of titles or a subject list or a search form by word of serial titles, publisher names, city of publication and subject.
Enzymes have interesting applications in our biological system and act as valuable biocatalysts. Their various functions allow enzymes to develop new drugs, detoxifications, and pharmaceutical chemistry. Research Advancements in Pharmaceutical, Nutritional, and Industrial Enzymology provides emerging research on biosynthesis, enzymatic treatments, and bioengineering of medicinal waste. While highlighting issues such as structural implications for drug development and food applications, this publication explores information on various applications of enzymes in pharmaceutical, nutritional, and industrial aspects. This book is a valuable resource for medical professionals, pharmacists, pharmaceutical companies, researchers, academics, and upper-level students seeking current information on developing scientific ideas for new drugs and other enzymatic advancements. He has published 22 research papers in journals of repute and 03 book chapter in books of international publishers.
Contents - Previous - Next. Flour made by grinding whole grain is occasionally used, particularly with the smaller millets, but in most places where sorghum and millets are consumed the grain is partially separated into its constituents before food is prepared from it. The first objective of processing is usually to remove some of the hull or bran - the fibrous outer layers of the grain.
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Microbial lipases triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolases, EC 3. They are currently given much attention with the rapid development of enzyme technology. The chemo-, regio- and enantio-specific characteristics of lipase tends to be a focus research area for scientists and industrialists. Compared to plants and animals, microorganisms have been found to produce high yields of lipases.
Великолепное имя, - сказала Николь и, улыбаясь собственным мыслям, вновь повернула к выходу. - Действительно великолепное. Ричард заявился домой к концу дня и не мог сдержать волнения.