Other natural polymers include starch, fats and DNA. Essentially, monomers are building blocks for molecules, including proteins, starches and many other polymers. Note that in the complete polymer, all of the double bonds have been turned into single bonds. The chemical properties of homopolymer 1 are different from those of homopolymer 2 or the copolymers. It is manufactured from propylene gas in presence of a catalyst such as titanium chloride. Diproplylene glycol dimethacrylate.
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Polymer , any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, including, for example, proteins , cellulose , and nucleic acids. Moreover, they constitute the basis of such minerals as diamond , quartz , and feldspar and such man-made materials as concrete , glass , paper , plastics , and rubbers.
The word polymer designates an unspecified number of monomer units. When the number of monomers is very large, the compound is sometimes called a high polymer. Polymers are not restricted to monomers of the same chemical composition or molecular weight and structure. Some natural polymers are composed of one kind of monomer. Most natural and synthetic polymers, however, are made up of two or more different types of monomers; such polymers are known as copolymers. Organic polymers play a crucial role in living things, providing basic structural materials and participating in vital life processes.
For example, the solid parts of all plants are made up of polymers. These include cellulose, lignin , and various resins. Cellulose is a polysaccharide , a polymer that is composed of sugar molecules. Lignin consists of a complicated three-dimensional network of polymers. Wood resins are polymers of a simple hydrocarbon, isoprene. Another familiar isoprene polymer is rubber.
Other important natural polymers include the proteins, which are polymers of amino acids , and the nucleic acids , which are polymers of nucleotides —complex molecules composed of nitrogen-containing bases, sugars, and phosphoric acid. The nucleic acids carry genetic information in the cell. Starches , important sources of food energy derived from plants, are natural polymers composed of glucose.
Many inorganic polymers also are found in nature, including diamond and graphite. Both are composed of carbon. In diamond, carbon atoms are linked in a three-dimensional network that gives the material its hardness. Synthetic polymers are produced in different types of reactions. Many simple hydrocarbons , such as ethylene and propylene , can be transformed into polymers by adding one monomer after another to the growing chain. Polyethylene , composed of repeating ethylene monomers, is an addition polymer.
It may have as many as 10, monomers joined in long coiled chains. Polyethylene is crystalline, translucent, and thermoplastic—i. It is used for coatings, packaging, molded parts, and the manufacture of bottles and containers. Polypropylene is also crystalline and thermoplastic but is harder than polyethylene. Its molecules may consist of from 50, to , monomers. This compound is used in the textile industry and to make molded objects. Other addition polymers include polybutadiene, polyisoprene , and polychloroprene , which are all important in the manufacture of synthetic rubbers.
Some polymers, such as polystyrene , are glassy and transparent at room temperature, as well as being thermoplastic. Polystyrene can be coloured any shade and is used in the manufacture of toys and other plastic objects. If one hydrogen atom in ethylene is replaced by a chlorine atom, vinyl chloride is produced. This polymerizes to polyvinyl chloride PVC , a colourless, hard, tough, thermoplastic material that can be manufactured in a number of forms, including foams, films, and fibres.
Vinyl acetate , produced by the reaction of ethylene and acetic acid , polymerizes to amorphous , soft resins used as coatings and adhesives. It copolymerizes with vinyl chloride to produce a large family of thermoplastic materials. Many important polymers have oxygen or nitrogen atoms, along with those of carbon, in the backbone chain.
Among such macromolecular materials with oxygen atoms are polyacetals. The simplest polyacetal is polyformaldehyde. It has a high melting point and is crystalline and resistant to abrasion and the action of solvents. Acetal resins are more like metal than are any other plastics and are used in the manufacture of machine parts such as gears and bearings.
A linear polymer characterized by a repetition of ester groups along the backbone chain is called a polyester. Open-chain polyesters are colourless, crystalline, thermoplastic materials. Those with high molecular weights 10, to 15, molecules are employed in the manufacture of films, molded objects, and fibres such as Dacron. The polyamides include the naturally occurring proteins casein , found in milk , and zein, found in corn maize , from which plastics, fibres, adhesives, and coatings are made.
Among the synthetic polyamides are the urea-formaldehyde resins, which are thermosetting. They are used to produce molded objects and as adhesives and coatings for textiles and paper. Also important are the polyamide resins known as nylons. They are strong, resistant to heat and abrasion, noncombustible, and nontoxic, and they can be coloured.
Their best-known use is as textile fibres, but they have many other applications. Another important family of synthetic organic polymers is formed of linear repetitions of the urethane group. Polyurethanes are employed in making elastomeric fibres known as spandex and in the production of coating bases and soft and rigid foams. A different class of polymers are the mixed organic-inorganic compounds. The most important representatives of this polymer family are the silicones.
Their backbone consists of alternating silicon and oxygen atoms with organic groups attached to each of the silicon atoms.
Silicones with low molecular weight are oils and greases. Higher-molecular-weight species are versatile elastic materials that remain soft and rubbery at very low temperatures. They are also relatively stable at high temperatures.
Article Media. Info Print Cite. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Polymer chemistry. See Article History. Read More on This Topic. The formation of polymers, long-chain molecules made of repeating units of monomers the essential building blocks mentioned above , is…. Get exclusive access to content from our First Edition with your subscription. Subscribe today. Learn More in these related Britannica articles:. The formation of polymers, long-chain molecules made of repeating units of monomers the essential building blocks mentioned above , is a far more difficult experimental problem than the formation of monomers.
Polymer ization reactions tend to be dehydrations. A molecule of water is lost in the…. The simple substance ethylene is a gas composed of molecules with the formula CH 2 CH 2.
Under certain conditions, many ethylene molecules will join together to form a long chain called polyethylene, with the formula CH 2 CH 2 n , where n is a variable but large number. A highly significant proportion of these basic petrochemicals is converted into plastics, synthetic rubbers, and synthetic fibres. Together these materials are known as polymers, because their molecules are high-molecular-weight compounds made up of repeated structural units that have combined chemically.
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More About. LiveScience - What Is a Polymer? Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students.
Authors Jan Knippers, Prof. Specialist articles: Joost Hartwig, Dipl. Editorial services Editors: Judith Faltermeier, Dipl. Architect; Cornelia Hellstern, Dipl. Architect; Peter Popp, Dipl.
Bundlemers (new polymer units) could transform industries
Polymers are large molecules macromolecules that are made up of many repeating structural units called monomers which have various functional groups. To put it more simply, a monomer is like a building block. Mono means one, while poly means many. So a monomer is the single unit, and a polymer is made from many monomers. A monomer is a small molecule that can be combined through a reaction to form a polymer. It is a repeating unit in the polymer.
Introduction to polymers
Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Polymer Products : Design, Materials and Processing. This book is derived from a recent project sponsored by the Polymer Engineering Directorate of the SERC and carried out at the University of Lancaster under the joint auspices of the Departments of Chemistry and Engineering. The project set out to provide a novel type of teaching material for introducing polymers and their uses to students, especially of engineering.
Raw Materials Polyester is a chemical term which can be broken into poly, meaning many, and ester, a basic organic chemical compound. Water Crystals are super-absorbent polymers in the form of white granules. Grab your lab coat. Graph any combination of polymer prices across regions of the world, across polymers and even by local and import markets. As they near the Tg, the slope of the reduction increases. Roland Even in the melt, a polymer chain occupies a small. It has superb gas barrier properties, particularly against oxygen and carbon dioxide, which helps to explain its use in bottles for carbonated drinks. PET use in several medical devices, which included human and animal safety data, can be used as the basis of safety of PET and related polymers in cosmetics. Employees are trained on the explosion hazards of combustible dusts.
How Is Polymer Plastic Made
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How Is Polymer Plastic Made. Much of the vinyl that you'll find in your home will not be labelled with a recycle number. Plastics are composed of polymers--large molecules consisting of repeating units called monomers. This bioplastic project is a fantastic science experiment for kids. Please contact us with any Extruded Plastic Flat Strip enquiries, or for more details of listed products. Plastic is a purely synthetic, man-made material, but it does often incorporate polymer into its composition. Major industrial polymers, chemical compounds used in the manufacture of synthetic industrial materials. The process from. All plastic is made of carbon. The plants are grown and harvested, and the plastics are extracted from the plant material.
From tires to clothes to shampoo, many ubiquitous products are made with polymers, large chain-like molecules made of smaller sub-units, called monomers, bonded together. Now, a team of researchers from the University of Delaware and University of Pennsylvania, with primary support from the U. Department of Energy Biomolecular Materials Program, has created a new fundamental unit of polymers that could usher in a new era of materials discovery. The researchers designed and created rigid, self-assembling, customizable polymer chains by linking together new building blocks called bundlemers -- a term coined at UD. They recently described their work in the journal Nature. To create bundlemers, the team assembles together four individual peptides, themselves short chains of amino acids, into nanoscopic cylinders. The bundlemer cylinders are then linked, together end-to-end through a highly efficient and controlled series of chemical reactions known as 'click' chemistry. The resulting polymer chains are rigid, rod-like molecules that are based in biology yet do not exist in nature. Bundlemer chains can then be modified with components such as synthetic polymers or inorganic nanoparticles to create new hybrid nanomaterials. Because of their rigidity and customizability, bundlemers could be used to design new materials with a wide range of applications, from high-performance fibers to single-use plastics to biologics, medicines that employ biological components instead of traditional chemistries.
Whether it be as translucent sheets, broadly stretched membranes, and inflated foil cushions or in graceful, organic curves, architecture today is utilizing plastics in the most disparate forms and for a wide variety of purposes. Innovative technical developments are constantly improving its material properties; at the same time, there is a growing new awareness of its potential as a construction material. While plastics used to be employed primarily as an inexpensive variant on traditional building materials, they are increasingly regarded in the construction world today as a serious and viable alternative, be it as supporting structures, roofs, facades, or elements of interior design and decoration. Thanks in large part to this inherent self-sufficiency, plastics are currently enjoying an unprecedented surge in popularity, even among the international architectural avant-garde — as multiwall sheets or corrugated, fiber-reinforced panels, or as filling between glass panes. And the new generation of ecological bioplastics also pays tribute to the debate on sustainability, ridding plastics of their lingering reputation as environmental offenders. From the history of plastics and membranes in architecture to their material properties and requirements in construction and design, the Plastics and Membranes Construction Manual cuts to the chase, providing the kind of solid and comprehensive overview of the subject that readers have come to expect from the Im DETAIL series. Selected project examples round off the reference work and make it indispensable for the day-to-day life of the professional planner and for every architecture library.
Polymer , any of a class of natural or synthetic substances composed of very large molecules, called macromolecules, that are multiples of simpler chemical units called monomers. Polymers make up many of the materials in living organisms, including, for example, proteins , cellulose , and nucleic acids. Moreover, they constitute the basis of such minerals as diamond , quartz , and feldspar and such man-made materials as concrete , glass , paper , plastics , and rubbers. The word polymer designates an unspecified number of monomer units.
Polymers are large molecules macromolecules that are made up of many repeating structural units called monomers which have various functional groups. To put it more simply, a monomer is like a building block. Mono means one, while poly means many. So a monomer is the single unit, and a polymer is made from many monomers.
Polymer material. Playing with Polymers. Material design UI elements implemented using Polymer.
Chemistry is the Science Behind Sustainability — the products, technologies and innovations enabled by the chemical industry are essential to a sustainable future. ACC is investing in research to improve understanding of how chemicals impact health and the environment.