More energy pipelines run through the U. America's pipeline system of 1. They are the steel highway networks that deliver oil, natural gas, and other hydrocarbons from wells to refineries to energy-hungry North American consumers, and to the ports that ship those products around the world. That combination of growth and income can help these stocks produce market-beating total returns , making them great options for income-seeking investors. This guide will introduce investors to the 10 biggest publicly traded pipeline companies by market cap and discuss the characteristics that enabled them to grow so large.
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- The oil and gas pipeline system
- The 10 Biggest Pipeline Stocks
- Combined Asset Map
- Pipeline Transportation and Storage
- Natural Gas Pipelines
- U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
- Fuel gas supply system
- Pipeline transport
- How Single Point Mooring (SPM) Offshore Operation Works?
- Storage and Marine Terminal
The oil and gas pipeline systemVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Trace Pipelines on ship , how to , Merchant Marine
The susceptibility of oils and fats to deterioration depends upon a number of factors including the type of oil or fat, whether it is crude, partially or fully refined and whether impurities are present. These should be considered when storing and transporting the oil.
Some of the effects of oxidation may be rectified within an edible oil refinery with some extra processing and, therefore, extra cost. However, the effects may be so severe that rectification is not possible.
Much can be gained by reducing the amount of air contact and this principle is the basis of several of the recommendations. Oxidation proceeds more rapidly as temperature increases, so each operation should be carried out at the lowest practicable temperature. The rate of oxidation is greatly increased by the catalytic action of copper or copper alloys, even when trace amounts ppm are present. Because of this, copper and copper alloys must be rigorously excluded from the systems. Other metals, such as iron, also have catalytic effects although less than that of copper.
Hydrolysis is also promoted by the action of certain micro-organisms. Tanks in which the oil is being stored or shipped should always be clean and dry before use.
In storage installations and ships, particular difficulty may be experienced ensuring cleanliness of valves and pipelines, particularly where they are common for different tanks. Contamination is avoided by good design of the systems, adequate cleaning routines and an effective inspection service, and on ships by the carriage of oils in segregated tank systems in which the previous cargoes are included in the Codex List of Acceptable Previous Cargoes at Appendix 2 of this Code.
Contamination is also avoided by the rejection of tanks which have carried as a last cargo products which are included on the Codex List of Banned Immediate Previous Cargoes at Appendix 3 of this Code.
Previous cargoes not on the Codex Lists of Acceptable or Banned cargoes are only to be used if agreed upon by competent authorities of the importing countries. Until both lists are completed, practitioners may find the lists and data referred to in the Bibliography at Appendix 4 provide relevant guidance. Where possible, tall, narrow tanks are preferred to minimise the surface areas of the contents and, therefore, to minimise contact of the oils or fats with air and the oxygen it contains.
Tank bottoms should be conical or sloped with a sump to facilitate draining. All openings such as manholes, inlets, outlets, draining out points, etc. For each installation, the total storage capacity, size and number of tanks need to be related to the size and frequency of intakes, rates of turnover and the number of different products handled etc.
Ships tanks differ from land tanks and complete segregation of tanks is achieved by using individual pumps and line systems, each tank having its own dedicated pump and line system. Mild steel tanks should preferably be coated to prevent attack or corrosion of the mild steel by the cargo. The coating should be approved for contact with food. The trend towards the use of stainless steel for tank construction will remove the need for tank coatings.
Damage to coatings can be caused by abrasion or by using unsuitable cleaning methods leading to local corrosion. The tanks should always be inspected before a cargo of oil or fat is loaded and, if necessary, repairs to the coatings should be carried out. Ships employed in the trade tend to be categorised as follows: a Bulk Tankers: These range from 15, to 40, tonnes and have a varying number of different sized tanks, usually with inter-connected valves. They are best suited for the carriage of single oils, in large volumes, where they can be loaded with valves open for fast receipt of the cargo and easier trim of the vessel.
Each tank may have one of a number of different coatings to suit a particular kind of cargo and each tank, or small group of tanks, will have its own dedicated pipelines and pumps. In addition, there are many small coasters, generally between and 3, tonnes, that cover short sea voyages. They are also frequently used to handle transhipment from ocean-going vessels.
Where the oils and fats are fully refined and deodorised for direct human consumption, the tank is normally of stainless steel construction or mild steel coated with epoxy resin. It is particularly recommended for the storage and transport of fully refined oils and fats. Tanks of mild steel should preferably be coated with an inert material on the inside, for example phenolic epoxy resins.
Their suitability for contact with foodstuffs, particularly oils and fats, should be obtained from coating manufacturers. Zinc silicate coatings for mild steel tanks are also suitable, but it should be noted that deterioration of the oil can take place if used with crude oils and fats with high acid values. Prior to application of the coating, the metal surface must be sand-blasted to bright metal ISO or equivalent.
It should be noted that there are temperature limitations on many coatings which must be carefully observed particularly during the cleaning of the tank for example, the temperature limitation may preclude the use of live steam in the cleaning operation.
Temperature gauges containing mercury should not be used. Glass equipment and glass sample bottles should be avoided in situations where breakage might lead to contamination.
Heating coils should be of stainless steel construction. Heating coils constructed from alloys containing copper are not suitable. Use of means of heating should be by design, construction and procedures, such as to avoid contamination and damage to the oil. Coils should be self draining or mechanical or vacuum pump draining.
The heating coils should rest on supporting legs about 7. Vertical hairpin coils or side heating coils installed on the tank walls should also be provided. As a guide a coil area of about 0. The total coil length is normally divided into two or more separate coils, of a length suitable to avoid excessive accumulation of steam condensate. External heat exchangers should satisfy the requirements of all means of heating with respect to design and construction such as to avoid contamination and damage to the oil.
There should be procedures in place to detect incidents of leakage should they occur. Although hot water and steam are the preferred means of heating, other substances may be used on the basis of safety and risk evaluation and inspection procedures. Upon request by the competent authorities, evidence may be required to demonstrate that the heating media employed have been properly evaluated and safely used.
Insulation is usually fitted externally and must be designed to avoid the absorption of oil or water. Insulation material should be impervious to oils and fats. Thermometers must be carefully sited and away from heating coils. It is useful to have automatic recording type thermometers to provide records of temperature control.
Filling can be done from the bottom or over the top of the tank with the pipe leading to near the bottom to avoid cascading to prevent aeration. However, if air is used a suitable means must be provided to prevent it being blown into the oil in the tanks. Stainless steel should be used for fully refined products. Exposed ends should be capped when not in use. Couplings should be of stainless steel or other inert materials. When clearing pipelines in such climates, steam may be used.
If steam is used, the steam pressure should not exceed kPa 1. The coils should be covered completely before heating of the tank begins. The temperatures apply to both crude and refined oils in each grade. The temperatures are chosen to minimise damage to the oil or fat. Some crystallisation will occur, but not so much as to require excessively long heating before delivery. Long term storage of all soft oils should be at ambient temperature and heating should be completely turned off.
If the oil then becomes solid, extreme care should be taken during the initial heating to ensure that localised overheating does not occur. The lower temperatures apply to low melting point grades, while the higher temperatures are necessary for higher melting point grades.
The temperatures apply to both crude and refined oils in each type. Temperature at loading or unloading should refer to the average of top, middle and bottom temperature readings. Readings should be taken not less than 30 cm away from the heating coils. Under cold weather conditions discharge temperatures should be at the maximum of those shown in Table 1, to prevent blocking of unheated pipelines. It is preferable to transfer different oils and grades through segregated lines.
Where a number of products are transferred through a common pipeline system, the system must be cleared completely between different products or grades.
The order of loading and discharge should be carefully chosen to minimise adulteration. The following principles should be observed: Fully refined oils before partly refined. Partly refined oils before crude oils. Edible oils before technical grades. Fatty acids or acid oils should be pumped last. Special care should be taken to prevent adulteration between lauric oils and non-lauric oils. If steam or water are used for cleaning, the system must be drained and completely dried before oil is handled.
If detergents or alkali are used, all surfaces with which they have been in contact should be rinsed thoroughly with fresh water to ensure that no residues remain. They should include functioning of steam pressure regulation valves; all steam supply valves and steam traps for leakage; thermometers, thermostats, recording thermometers, weighing equipment and any gauge meters for function and accuracy; all pumps regulated by thermostat for leakage; integrity of tank coatings; hoses internal and external and condition of tanks and ancillary equipment.
The provision should be part of all shipping contracts. In addition, authorities may wish to see evidence of previous cargo details. International List of Acceptable Previous Cargoes giving synonyms and alternative chemical names. Substance synonyms in brackets. Acetone cyanohydrin ACH; a-hydroxyisobutyronitrile; 2-methyllactonitrile. Carbon tetrachloride CTC; tetrachloromethane; perchloromethane.
Cardura E tradename for glycidyl esters of versatic acid. Ethylene dibromide EDB; 1,2-dibromoethane; ethylene bromide. Ethanolamine MEA; monoethanolamine; colamine; 2-aminoethanol; 2-hydroxyethylamine.
Hexamethylenediamine 1,6-diaminohexane; 1,6-hexanediamine. Leaded products shall not be carried as three previous cargoes. Methylene chloride MEC; dichloromethane; methylene dichloride. Nitric acid aqua fortis; engravers acid; azotic acid. Telone II 1-propene, 1,3-dichloro; 1,3-dichloropropene.
Our Natural Gas Pipelines segment provides transportation and storage services to end users through its wholly owned assets and its 50 percent ownership interests in Northern Border Pipeline and Roadrunner. In Texas, our intrastate natural gas pipelines are connected to the major natural gas producing formations in the Texas Panhandle, including the Granite Wash formation and Delaware and Midland Basins in the Permian Basin. These pipelines are capable of transporting natural gas throughout the western portion of Texas, including the Waha area where other pipelines may be accessed for transportation to western markets, exports to Mexico, the Houston Ship Channel market to the east and the Mid-Continent market to the north. Our intrastate natural gas pipeline assets also have access to the Hugoton and Central Kansas Uplift Basins in Kansas.
The 10 Biggest Pipeline Stocks
Oil and gas produced from a field need to be transported to customers. On many oil fields, oil is loaded directly on to tankers buoy-loading. In other cases, oil and gas are transported by pipeline to onshore facilities. Oil, wet gas and liquefied natural gas LNG are transferred to ships at onshore facilities, while dry gas is moved by pipeline to the UK and continental Europe. In contrast to the oil and gas fields on the Norwegian shelf, where the companies themselves are responsible for the operations, the gas pipeline system is more directly controlled by the authorities. An important consideration for the authorities is to ensure equal access to capacity in the system on the basis of companies' needs.
Combined Asset Map
Our focus: safe, efficient and reliable services in constructing and operating the facilities Safeguarding health, safety, security and environmental protection is a priority for us Detail search. Petroleum Storage. Chemical Storage. Gas Storage.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How to Read P&ID Drawing - A Complete Tutorial
Floating Production Storage and Offloading vessels, or FPSOs, are offshore production facilities that house both processing equipment and storage for produced hydrocarbons. The basic design of most FPSOs encompasses a ship-shaped vessel, with processing equipment, or topsides, aboard the vessel's deck and hydrocarbon storage below in the double hull. After processing, an FPSO stores oil or gas before offloading periodically to shuttle tankers or transmitting processed petroleum via pipelines. Moored in place by various mooring systems, FPSOs are effective development solutions for both deepwater and ultra-deepwater fields. A central mooring system allows the vessel to rotate freely to best respond to weather conditions, or weathervane, while spread-mooring systems anchor the vessel from various locations on the seafloor. Usually tied to multiple subsea wells, FPSOs gather hydrocarbons from subsea production wells through a series of in-field pipelines. Once tapped by subsea wells, hydrocarbons are transmitted through flowlines to risers, which transport the oil and gas from the seafloor to the vessel's turret and then to the FPSO on the water's surface. The processing equipment aboard the FPSO is similar to what would be found atop a production platform.
Pipeline Transportation and Storage
Pipeline transport is the long-distance transportation of a liquid or gas through a system of pipes —a pipeline—typically to a market area for consumption. Liquids and gases are transported in pipelines and any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipeline. Pipelines are useful for transporting water for drinking or irrigation over long distances when it needs to move over hills , or where canals or channels are poor choices due to considerations of evaporation , pollution , or environmental impact. Oil pipelines are made from steel or plastic tubes which are usually buried.
Gas is extracted from underground gas fields and treated before being sent by pipelines to the transmission networks or by LNG vessels to the regasification terminals. Gas is injected and stored in underground reservoirs to be withdrawn from and re-injected into the transmission system according to gas demand. Onshore production : gas is extracted from underground gas fields and is treated in order to ensure an acceptable gas quality. Offshore production : gas is extracted from underground offshore gas fields and is treated in order to ensure an acceptable gas quality. This process reduces its volume by about times. Gas field : Natural gas is found in sedimentary deposits often several thousand metres deep. LNG vessel : special ship capable of transporting up to Upstream pipeline : Underground or undersea gas pipelines used for the transportation of natural gas from production fields to transmission networks.
Natural Gas Pipelines
Delivering natural gas from natural gas and oil wells to consumers requires many infrastructure assets and processing steps, and it includes several physical transfers of custody. Natural gas transported on the mainline natural gas transportation system in the United States must meet specific quality measures so that the pipeline network or grid can provide uniform quality natural gas. Wellhead natural gas may contain contaminants and hydrocarbon gas liquids HGL that must be removed before the natural gas can be safely delivered to the high-pressure, long-distance pipelines that transport natural gas to consumers. A natural gas processing plant typically receives natural gas from a gathering system of pipelines from natural gas and oil wells. Natural gas processing can be complex and usually involves several processes, or stages, to remove oil, water, HGL, and other impurities such as sulfur, helium, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon dioxide. The composition of the wellhead natural gas determines the number of stages and the processes required to produce pipeline-quality dry natural gas. Natural gas transmission pipelines are wide-diameter pipelines and are often the long-distance portion of natural gas pipeline systems that connect gathering systems in producing areas, natural gas processing plants, other receipt points, and the main consumer service areas.
U.S. Energy Information Administration - EIA - Independent Statistics and Analysis
SPM is mainly used in areas where a dedicated facility for loading or unloading liquid cargo is not available. Located at a distance of several kilometers from the shore-facility and connected using sub-sea and sub-oil pipelines, these single point mooring SPM facilities can even handle vessels of massive capacity such as VLCC. Single point mooring SPM serves as a link between the shore-facilities and the tankers for loading or off-loading liquid and gas cargo. Some of the major benefits of using SPM are:. The offshore-anchored loading buoy is divided into different parts having dedicated functionality. Mooring and anchoring system, buoy body and product transfer system are the main parts of the SPM. The SPM is moored to the seabed using mooring arrangement which includes anchors, anchor chains, chain stoppers etc.
Fuel gas supply system
Clifton Ridge Crude System: A crude oil pipeline, terminal and storage system located in Sulphur, Louisiana, that is the primary source for delivery of crude oil to Phillips 66's Lake Charles Refinery. Sweeny to Pasadena Products System: A refined petroleum product pipeline, terminal and storage system extending from Phillips 66's Sweeny Refinery in Old Ocean, Texas, to our refined petroleum product terminal in Pasadena, Texas, and ultimately connecting to the Explorer and Colonial refined petroleum product pipeline systems and other third-party pipeline and terminal systems.
The Storage Terminal lies some 7. Other pipelines connect the Storage Terminal to the Marine Terminal on the coast. The Storage Terminal consists of tanks to receive propane, butane and condensate, refrigeration units to cool the products, and refrigerated storage tanks.
How Single Point Mooring (SPM) Offshore Operation Works?
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Storage and Marine Terminal
The clicked link will open a new window to a Website not managed by Enterprise Products. We constructed the South Eddy plant to serve producers in the Delaware Basin region. We also completed construction of approximately 90 miles of natural gas gathering pipelines to supply the new plant. In addition to the South Eddy plant and its related natural gas gathering infrastructure, we also completed a mile extension of our Mid-America Pipeline System.