The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn , cloth and clothing. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. It's outputs are- Denim ,cotton cloth etc. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre. In the year , the global yield was 25 million tons from 35 million hectares cultivated in more than 50 countries.
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- Wearable Technology Report
- Threading Your Way Through the Labeling Requirements Under the Textile and Wool Acts
- Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
- Textiles in space
- Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
- Furnishing textiles
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- Utility Bedding
- Textile industry
- Textile Application: From Need to Imagination
Wearable Technology ReportVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to Grow Leather-Like Material Using Bacteria (Making Kombucha Leather)
To understand textiles and their application today, as well as future applications, it is necessary to comprehend the development of textiles and their applications throughout history.
The gradual development of textile production processes and the use of different materials, influenced the development and application of materials themselves.
Numerous innovations made since Industrial revolution, events in technology development and international competition have shaped the industry and continue to affect the textile production even today. Nowadays, textiles can be divided into two main sectors according to their application: conventional textiles textiles for fashion clothing and technical textiles with numerous applications for nearly all society needs. Due to market needs and technology development, the interference of all areas of science occurs, resulting in amazing innovations that follow existing trends and set future trends in terms of interactivity, digital and electronic functionality, social and environmental awareness, esthetics, etc.
These are the reasons for great freedom, development prospects, expression of creativity and thus of innovativeness. The need for them today is greater and more important than ever before in the history of textiles and their application.
Textiles for Advanced Applications. Textiles have been important in human history and reflect the materials available to a civilization as well as to the technologies that had been mastered. From the ancient times to the present day, methods of textile production have continually evolved, and the choices of textiles available have influenced how people carried their possession, clothed themselves, and decorated their surroundings.
The social significance of finished products reflects their culture. Archeological findings reveal many secrets about the history of textiles, their application and development, as well as art, and numerous historical documents.
Knowledge of such materials remains inferential, since textile deteriorates quickly compared to stone, bone, shell, and metal artifacts. Historical facts give strong reasons for believing that humans began wearing clothes ,—50, years ago. The evidence supporting such beliefs is genetic analysis that indicates the fact that the human body louse, which lives in clothing, may have diverged from the head louse , years ago.
These estimates predate the first known human exodus from Africa [ 1 , 2 ]. Our knowledge of ancient textiles has expanded in the recent times thanks to modern technological developments.
Possible sewing needles have been dated to around 40, years ago and the earliest dyed flax fibers have been found in a prehistoric cave in the Republic of Georgia and date back to 36, BC, which suggests that textile-like materials were made even in prehistoric times [ 3 ].
The earliest evidence of weaving comes from the impressions of textiles, basketry, and nets on little pieces of hard clay, dating from 27, BC and found in Dolni Vestonice in the Czech Republic.
Evidence exists of flax cultivation from BC in the Near East [ 4 , 5 ]. It is believed that the first actual textile, as opposed to skins sewn together, was probably felt.
Many cultures have legends about the origins of felt making. A Sumerian legend claims that the secret of felt making was discovered by Urn Amman of Lagash. In Europe, Near East, and North Africa, from prehistoric times to early Middle Ages, two loom types dominated the textile production: the warp-weighted and the two-beam loom.
The width of woven fabric is determined by the length of the cloth beam and could be 2—3 m wide. Woven clothing was very often made from full loom widths draped, tied, or pinned in place. Neolithic period around BC is characterized by Ancient Egypt from where evidence of the flax fabric production originate.
Documentation of domesticated wild flax cultivation, likely imported from the Levant, exists from BC. Other fibers like rush, reed, palm, and papyrus were used alone or with linen, to make rope and other textiles.
Production and use of wool in that period are not significantly documented. The inhabitants of the Indus Valley Civilization used cotton for making clothing as early as — BC [ 5 , 6 , 8 ].
Around BC, the breeding of sheep with woolly fleece, rather than hair, occurs. At that time, different spinning techniques were used drop spindle, hand-to-hand spinning, rolling on the thigh. The yarn was also spliced, and the horizontal ground loom was used for weaving process. From the period of New Kingdom, a vertical two-beam loom was introduced, probably from Asia [ 9 ]. Ancient History is divided according to cultures whose traces have been kept until today BC—fifth century AD.
Textiles and its development had a major impact on the development of its application and thus on the development other society and culture of these civilizations. Time between and BC was a period from which the earliest evidence of silk production in China date back, found at the sites of Yang Shao culture in Xia, Shanxi. Another, with the remains, rich sites of Hemudu culture in Yuyao, Zhejiang, reveals fragments of primitive loom, dated to about BC, while in a Liangzhu culture site at Qianshanyang in Huzhou, Zhejiang, were found silk scarps, dating back to BC.
Other valuable fragments have been recovered from royal tombs — BC of the Shang Dynasty. Clothing of the elite was made of silk in vivid primary colors [ 10 ]. Linen bandages were used in the burial custom of mummification, and such linen, woven with threads per inch, was found on an Egyptian mummy BC.
Cloth fragments made of bark fibers and hemp fibers were discovered. Some pottery pattern imprints depict fine mat designs, proving their weaving techniques, and also show clothing with patterns that are embroidered or painted arched designs. Since bone needles were also found, it is assumed that they wore dresses that were sewn together [ 12 ]. The classical Filipino clothing varied according to cost and current fashions and so indicated social standing. In ascending order of value, textiles were made of abaca, abaca decorated with colored cotton thread, cotton, cotton decorated with silk thread, silk, imported print stuff, and an elegant abaca woven of selected fibers almost as thin as silk.
Fabric in Ancient Greece was woven on a warp-weighted loom. The vase — BC depicts two women weaving at an upright loom. Wool was the preferred fabric in Ancient Greek clothing, although linen, hemp, and small amounts of expensive imported silk and cotton were also worn. Ancient Greeks and Romans developed an enormous trade in textile BC. Silk became the luxury cloth in Rome, while around 65 BC, cotton awnings were used [ 5 , 9 ]. The Silk road was network of a series of ancient trade and cultural transmission routes, through regions of the Asian continent, linking East and West, China with Mediterranean Sea.
The trade route was initiated around BC, although earlier trade across the continents had already existed. Trade on the Silk road, where the exchange of luxury textiles was predominant, was a significant factor in the development of the great civilizations of China, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, the Indian subcontinent, and Rome and helped to lay the foundations for the modern world. For the West World, silk was the most important merchandise that passed the Silk road.
The development of silk weaving can be traced back to BC. At the time, silk was an extremely rare material in the West, like purple and glass counted in luxury goods of the Roman Empire. The elite of early medieval Europe imported silk and cotton from the Byzantine and later Muslim, as well as bleached linen, dyed wool.
Besides weaving, embroidery was very widespread. Lower classes wore local or homespun wool, very often undyed, trimmed with bands of decoration various embroideries, tablet-woven bands, or colorful borders woven into the fabric in the loom. Evidence exists from AD of earliest woodblock printing flowers in three colors on silk from China, while the oldest samples of cloth printed by Woodblock printing from Egypt date from AD.
Finely decorated examples of cotton socks made by true knitting using continuous thread appear in Egypt around AD [ 9 ]. At the same time, a great expansion of wool industry was present in England. Henry I sponsored the first woolen cloth guild and relocated skilled Flemish weavers to English villages to increase production. In AD, the first annual cloth fair was held in England.
England became a European center of textile production. During thirteenth century, great progress in the dyeing and wool processing has been made, which was the most important material for outerwear of that time. For the clothing that was in direct contact with skin, the linen that could be laundered and bleached in the sun, was increasingly used.
Raw cotton was imported from Egypt and elsewhere, and was used for many applications such as padding and quilting, as well as cloths such as buckram and fustian. Valuable knowledge of fine textiles like light silks was brought to Western Europe from Levant by the Crusaders. Silk that was imported in Northern Europe, was very expensive luxury material like exclusive woven brocades from Italy , which could afford only the well-off.
Fashionable Italian silks of this period featured repeating patterns of roundels and animals, deriving from Ottoman silk-weaving centers in Bursa and Yuan Dynasty from China [ 16 ]. The Renaissance, which marked a break with the Middle Ages, is one of the most creative periods in history. It is one of the largest movements in the culture of Western Europe, which has led to a reversal in all segments of the Arts and Sciences, including textiles.
Further development and progress in the process of dyeing and tailoring, in Western Europe during the fourteenth century, accelerated the expansion of fashion and drastically changed worldviews and ways of thinking. In subsequent centuries, clothing and draperies became increasingly elaborate, but still retaining the manufacturing methods.
Raw materials such as flax and hemp were highly represented in the fabrics production during the Renaissance Europe, but wool has still remained a dominant material. Wool fabrics were available in a wide variety of qualities and processing, from rough undyed, to fine dense broadcloth with a velvety nap, dyed in rich colors red, green, gold, blue.
High-value broadcloth was the most important export product and the backbone of the British economy. The prosperity increase during the fifteenth century influenced the textile industry, where the middle class, following the fashion of elite class, began wearing more complex clothes and materials. During the sixteenth and seventeenth century in Europe, the great flowering of needle lace occurred. Lacemaking centers were established in France to reduce the outflow of cash to Italy [ 16 , 18 ].
In , William Lee invents stocking frame, the first and hand-operated weft-knitting machine. During the seventeenth century, England passed numerous laws that for example forbade English textile craftsmen to emigrate to America, forbade English colonies in America from trading wool materials, required all persons to be buried in woolen cloth because more cloth was being produced than could be sold. All the secrets of weaving crafts were strictly kept in family circles.
Until , there was a law, which allows death sentence in the case of loom exports out of the country. In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries a great number of innovations and patents emerged which greatly enhanced the production and use of textiles. The flying shuttle, patented in by John Kay, doubled the weaving productivity, which led to even greater imbalance increase between spinning and weaving processes.
Wool spinning with even greater thickness was enabled with patenting of roller spinning frame and the flyer-and-bobbin system, by Lewis Paul, who in along with Daniel Bourn also patented carding machines.
James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny, which he patented in , while the spinning frame or water frame was developed and patented in by Richard Arkwright. Mule spun thread was of suitable strength to be used as warp, and finally allowed Britain to produce good quality calico cloth. Edmund Cartwright developed a vertical power loom, which he patented in and in , he patented a two-man operated loom, which was more conventional.
This is an early example of precomputer technology [ 5 ]. Since about to sometime between and was the period of transition to new manufacturing processes, known as Industrial Revolution. Textiles were the dominant industry of the Industrial Revolution in terms of employment, value of output and capital invested; the textile industry was also the first to use modern production methods.
The industrial revolution has enabled the application of waterwheels and steam engines for mechanization of textile production. As a result, small cottage-based production was switched to mass production based on assembly line organization. Opposite the fabric, clothing production was still made by hand.
Download PDF Version. A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air. The porosity, or the ease with which air passes through material. Air permeability determines such factors as the wind resistance of sailcloth, the air resistance of parachute cloth, and the efficiency of various types of air filtration media. It is also a measure of warmness or coolness of a fabric. A texturing procedure in which S and Z twist are alternately inserted in the yarn by means of a special heating apparatus.
Threading Your Way Through the Labeling Requirements Under the Textile and Wool Acts
To understand textiles and their application today, as well as future applications, it is necessary to comprehend the development of textiles and their applications throughout history. The gradual development of textile production processes and the use of different materials, influenced the development and application of materials themselves. Numerous innovations made since Industrial revolution, events in technology development and international competition have shaped the industry and continue to affect the textile production even today. Nowadays, textiles can be divided into two main sectors according to their application: conventional textiles textiles for fashion clothing and technical textiles with numerous applications for nearly all society needs. Due to market needs and technology development, the interference of all areas of science occurs, resulting in amazing innovations that follow existing trends and set future trends in terms of interactivity, digital and electronic functionality, social and environmental awareness, esthetics, etc.
Introductory Chapter: Textile Manufacturing Processes
Handfield et al. IEEE TEM —, model of product design and development provided a context by which to explore inclusion of environmental performance criteria within the design process. Data were collected through interviews with twelve professional designers of interior textile products. Analyses revealed six themes or stages in the design process for interior textile products: resources and research, consumer need and trend identification, inspiration, creative exploration, product samples, and design completion. DfE-oriented designers and conventional designers did not differ in their narratives regarding design process however, the focus and scope of decision-making within each theme or stage allowed for an additional component to the DfE-oriented design and development process of interior textile products. Since the s, researchers have attempted to understand the step-by-step processes that designers use to create a variety of products, including textiles Watkins, More recently, researchers have linked decisions made during the design process to the financial and environmental impacts of products Ramani et al.
Welspun is world leader in home textiles and the supplier of choice for top retailers in more than 50 countries. In record time. Across projects spanning highways, water, oil and gas, Welspun builds infrastructure that enables, enhances and enriches the lives of the people it touches. Read More. Welspun steel manufactures quality billets for high tensile structural rolling applications supported by integrated manufacturing facility. We exist to give people the power to reimagine their living spaces, effortlessly. In homes around the world, keen innovation, our design sensitivity, and market expertise continues to enhance comfort, spread warmth and enrich lives.
Textiles in space
A textile  is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibers yarn or thread. Yarn is produced by spinning raw fibres of wool , flax , cotton , hemp , or other materials to produce long strands. The related words " fabric "  and " cloth "  and "material" are often used in textile assembly trades such as tailoring and dressmaking as synonyms for textile.
Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
Reviewed: June 11th Published: August 28th Textile Manufacturing Processes. Textile fibers provided an integral component in modern society and physical structure known for human comfort and sustainability. Man is a friend of fashion in nature. The desire for better garment and apparel resulted in the development of textile fiber production and textile manufacturing process. Primarily the natural textile fibers meet the requirements for human consumption in terms of the comfort and aesthetic trends.
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TALA is a new brand of athleisure and activewear that holds sustainability at its core. Garments are produced and hand finished in Portugal where a number of steps have been taken to ensure every step of the process is as sustainable as possible.
Covering machine, for the production of fancy yarns for the trimming industry, shoes industry and for the production of special yarns. Possibility to work from any kind of yarns, including metallic threads and Lurex.
The idea - to brainstorm how technology developed for space could improve textiles, fibre products, clothes and textile manufacturing equipment. More than French textile industries are based in the area and a similar sized market lies just across the border in Belgium. With this workshop we want to push this process further and form groups of designers, textile producers, clothes distributors and space technology experts all working together to propose new applications for use in the textile industry.
Textile Application: From Need to Imagination
Since the start of human spaceflight, the U. Survival inside a spacecraft needed to be addressed first. Historically, human space exploration started with modifications of high-altitude pressure suits, which were the result of 30 years of research and development for the U.