In , European companies began to move wool scouring capacity to Australia due to environmental problems and land constraints in Europe. However, it was soon found that they faced with numerous environmental problems at the plant. GWS responded by turning these problems into business solutions. It sought cleaner production through improved efficiencies.
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Cashmere woolVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Space Station Live: Cultivating Plant Growth in Space
The life of a flax flower is transitory: a flower lasts less than one day. But each plant makes dozens of flowers for three to four weeks, and a plot of flax in bloom looks like a reflection of the sky. Then seedpods swell to the size of a pea and turn from green to gold as the seeds inside ripen, and the plants dry out and die. Each individual plant makes one or more slender, erect stems about 3 feet tall, scattered with narrow, pale green leaves about 1 inch long. Different cultivars of flax have been selected for maximum yield and quality of either fiber or oil.
Farmers specialize in one product or the other, choose cultivars accordingly, and take slightly different approaches to growing and harvesting their crops. From a flax patch about 4 feet square, you can harvest enough fiber to make a basket and enough seeds for a batch of bread or crackers. Flax tolerates a range of soils and climates and can be grown in almost any part of the United States.
Choose a site in full sun, with deep, fertile, well-drained soil, and prepare it as you would for growing vegetables or flowers. Flax grows best in cool weather, so sow it outdoors as soon as you can work the soil in spring, at the same time that you would sow peas, lettuce or other cool-weather crops. This can be as early as January or as late as May, depending on where you live. Rake the surface of the soil to prepare a smooth, fine-textured seedbed.
Measure your planned flax plot to determine its area, and plan to sow about one tablespoon of flax seeds per 10 square feet. Dust the small brown seeds with flour before sowing so that you can scatter them evenly across the surface of the plot. Water gently if the soil starts to dry out before germination, which takes about 10 days. Seedling flax plants quickly develop a good root system and need watering only if the weather is unusually warm, dry or windy.
Pull out any weeds that appear before the seedlings have grown a few inches tall; after the seeds sprout, the flax plants will crowd out any weeds. Rabbits and rodents sometimes nibble flax, but it has few insect or disease problems. The only common, serious crisis in growing flax is that the tender stalks sometimes get knocked flat by hail or heavy rainstorms. If that happens, use the tines of a garden fork.
They may straighten up again, or at least partially recover. The fibers in the stem of the flax plant form a thin layer between the woody core and the outer skin or epidermis that runs all the way from the roots to the tips. The fibers have already reached their full length when the flax begins to flower, about two months after planting, but they are still thin, delicate and weak.
From flowering until the death of the plant, the fibers become increasingly thicker and stronger, but also more stiff and brittle. Unfortunately, fiber quality peaks before the seeds have fully ripened. If you harvest the plants early enough usually about three months after planting to get top-quality fiber, you sacrifice most of the seed crop.
If you wait until the seeds are ripe about four months after planting , the fiber has become coarse. This difference in the timing of harvest is a major reason why commercial flax farmers produce either fiber or seeds but not both.
Again, a hobby grower can compromise. To reap both seeds and fiber, harvest the flax about four months after planting. The leaves on the lower half or two-thirds of the stem will be turning yellow and dropping off.
Most of the seedpods will have turned gold or tan; if you shake them, the seeds will rattle inside. Grasp the stems, a handful at a time, right at ground level and pull them up, roots and all. Shake the soil off the roots, lay a few handfuls of stems together side by side, and use rubber bands or string to secure them into a bundle.
Hang the bundles in a warm place with good air circulation. After a few weeks, when the stalks are stiff and dry, you can thresh out the seeds. This takes some effort: you have to crush open the pods. One method is to slide a pillowcase over the top end of a bundle, tie the case securely around the stems, then put it down on a paved driveway, sidewalk or other hard, flat surface.
Beat the pods through the cloth with a block of wood, roll them with a rolling pin push hard! After several minutes of such activity, open the bag to confirm that most of the pods have been crushed, shake the bundle vigorously to knock out all the seeds, then pour the seeds and chaff out of the pillowcase into a bowl and start again with the next bundle. After threshing all the bundles, sift the seeds through a colander or coarse strainer to remove bits of stems and broken pods.
Step outdoors in the breeze and pour the seeds slowly from one container to another to winnow away any remaining chaff or dust. Processing the bundles of stems to extract the fibers for spinning is a complex task that requires simple but special tools, a lot of hard physical work, and a sense of timing and judgment that comes only from long experience.
The first step, called retting, involves soaking or wetting the stems for a period of days or weeks to promote bacterial action, which separates the different layers of stem tissues and loosens the fibers.
After retting, the stems are dried again, then crushed between the wooden blades of a tool called a break or brake, which breaks the woody core into short bits that fall away from the mass of fibers. Finally, the bundles are combed through metal-tined combs called hackles. The result: a smooth bundle of long, straight fibers called line flax and a pile of fluffy, tangled, shorter fibers called tow. The line flax is used to make crisp, glossy fabrics, and the tow is used for everyday goods.
Rita Buchanan is a weaver, spinner, and gardener in Winsted, Connecticut. Can it grow in Gold Coast Queensland please.
LearningToGarden- The tools to process flax are similar to those used to process wool. Spinning flax is much less popular than spinning wool is in America, so it's a little harder to find flax tools, but luckily you can often substitute wool tools.
If you're interested in working with flax as a fiber you'll first have to learn the basics of spinning. There are numerous online resources to help with this. What do the tools look like? Do you know where to get the tools to process flax? Join us in the Lone Star state to explore ways to save money and live efficiently. This two-day event includes hands-on workshops and a marketplace featuring the latest homesteading products.
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Pay now with a credit card and take advantage of our earth-friendly automatic renewal savings plan. Offer valid only in the U. Herb to Know: Flax For beauty, nutrition and flavor, this tenacious plant is hard to beat. After blooming, the seed pods swell and turn brown. Petals unfold in the morning and drop by evening. Flax seed has beneficial omega-3 fatty acids. Grow and Harvest Flax Flax tolerates a range of soils and climates and can be grown in almost any part of the United States. Continue Reading.
Thresh Flax Seeds Hang the bundles in a warm place with good air circulation. Process Flax Fibers Processing the bundles of stems to extract the fibers for spinning is a complex task that requires simple but special tools, a lot of hard physical work, and a sense of timing and judgment that comes only from long experience.
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Wool prices continued to rebound at sales in Melbourne and Fremantle today. Wool prices roared back into life at Wednesday's sales with the EMI climbing c to finish the day at c after sales in Melbourne and Sydney. Today's sales were in Melbourne and Fremantle with Merino fleece wools in strong demand. Melbourne's pass-in rate was only 1. AWEX reported solid increases of 50 to 60c for A limited selection of well-prepared 29 micron crossbred wool increased by 25c.
US2421094A - Treatment of wool-washing effluent - Google Patents
Textile recycling is the process by which old clothing and other textiles are recovered for reuse or material recovery. It is the basis for the textile recycling industry. The necessary steps in the textile recycling process involve the donation, collection, sorting and processing of textiles, and then subsequent transportation to end users of used garments, rags or other recovered materials. The basis for the growing textile recycling industry is, of course, the textile industry itself. The importance of recycling textiles is increasingly being recognized. Over 80 billion garments are produced annually, worldwide. According to U.
US2421094A - Treatment of wool-washing effluent - Google Patents
He has written numerous publications on such topics as plant performance, maintenance engineering, maintenance management, and predictive maintenance. He is also a contributing editor for Plant Services magazine. Plant Engineer's Handbook. Keith Mobley. Plant engineers are responsible for a wide range of industrial activities, and may work in any industry. This means that breadth of knowledge required by such professionals is so wide that previous books addressing plant engineering have either been limited to only certain subjects or cursory in their treatment of topics. The Plant Engineering Handbook offers comprehensive coverage of an enormous range of subjects which are of vital interest to the plant engineer and anyone connected with industrial operations or maintenance.
Recovery of wax from wool : Wool wax is a greasy substance secreted by fatty glands of the skin. Wool grease is recovered by centrifuging aqueous scouring liquors from the washing of greasy wool with detergents, often called centrifugal woolgrease. Chemically speaking, it is a complex mixture of wax esters of long chain fatty acids and alcohols, the latter including cholesterol, lanosterol and dihydrolanosterol. Centrifugal woolgrease is often considered by buyers to be of the best quality, especially if it is passed through 2 or more centrifuging steps. Industrial uses include fuel, lubricating greases, concrete mould lubricants, rust preventatives. Woolgrease is also an important component in many leather softeners. Lanolin is graded based upon its colour and presence of impurities, with the highest grades being white or very pale yellow in colour.
Recovery of wool wax and its use
The process of making cool novelty socks has come a long way, and new advancements in fiber blending, dyes, manufacturing and more are popping up all the time! Here, you can learn about commonly used fibers, specialty sock-making techniques and interesting industry tidbits. Acrylic is a highly durable man-made fiber that provides softness and warmth with little weight.
In Europe, most of the discarded and un-wearable textiles are incinerated or landfilled. In this study, we present an enzyme-based strategy for the recovery of valuable building blocks from mixed textile waste and blends as a circular economy concept. The purity of the remaining poly ethylene terephthalate PET unaltered by the enzymatic treatments was assessed via Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy. Amino acids recovered from wool were characterized via elementary and molecular size analysis, while the glucose resulting from the cotton hydrolysis was successfully converted into ethanol by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This work demonstrated that the step-wise application of enzymes can be used for the recovery of pure building blocks glucose and their further reuse in fermentative processes. In the last decades the production of textiles, especially for clothing, is exponentially increasing, mostly due to globalization [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. This intensive production is responsible for the decreases in prices leading the consumers to consider clothes as disposable materials. From the estimation provided by Hollins based on an extrapolation of data provided by nine textile sorters in EU countries , 80, tons of textile waste are generated per year [ 4 ].
Wool prices bounce through the $15 a kg barrier as recovery continues
This invention relates to the treatment of woolwashery efiiuent and has particular reference, on the one hand, to the recovery of wool grease and other useful substances in the effluent, and, on the other hand, to the disposal of the effluent thereafter into the normal sewage channels, stream, river or like, or to other plant for furth'er treatment. Hitherto, the treatment of wool-washery effiuent has been carried out in one or other of various methods all of which have some shortcoming, so that their choice and installation by wool washeries is governed more by the necessityto render the efiluent suitable for discharge into streams, rivers or the like, rather than as units installed as integral parts of wool washery economy. A brief description of other widely used methods is given below for the purpose of illustrating the type of shortcoming referred to above:. The Magna process or the acid-cracking process in which the waste liquors are treated with a slight excess of sulphuric acid. The cracked liquors are run into settling tanks wh'ere separation into three layers takes place.
Transplant shock is not so much related to damaging delicate roots during a relocation, but more down to a sudden change in environmental conditions. Young plants especially freshly rooted cuttings suffer most from transplant shock when they are moved from one environment -high relative humidity and lower intensity lighting-to a more intense situation. This can occur, for example, when moving plants from a propagation tent under a T5 Fluorescent to a W HID Metal Halide, or from indoors to outdoors on a bright sunny summer's day. The "shock" is the sudden change. Plants are used to change and are more than capable of adapting-but the more gradual and incremental, the better. Preparation is key. Before you even think about moving a plant from its pot, make sure you have the new pot prepared with fresh media and pre-moistened.
Today, the Group is the leading manufacturer in Europe and the second largest global player in the BCF sector. Aquafil is a leading supplier for carpet manufacturers operating in the following markets: contract hotels, offices and public buildings , automotive car mats and upholstery and residential.
Я прихватила с собой лишь стетоскоп и сфигмометр и несколько раз уже обследовала. но не смогла обнаружить ничего необычного, кроме случайных перебоев в сердце и одышки.
Разве ты не понимаешь, что это означает. Когда октопауки изменили строение ДНК, чтобы сделать более острым твое зрение и наделить способностями к их языку, они воздействовали на генетический код, миллионы лет эволюционировавший в естественных условиях. Кто знает, какие хвори, даже дефекты наследственности могут проявиться в тебе самой или в твоих потомках.
Мы попали в какой-то лабиринт. Как бы не заблудиться.