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Space manufacturing prey for whales, sea animals, seafood and crustaceans

Space manufacturing prey for whales, sea animals, seafood and crustaceans

Blue whales eat krill - tiny, shrimp-like crustaceans that live throughout Earth's oceans. The huge whales can eat up to four tonnes of krill every day. Blue whales lunge through large swarms of krill with their mouths open, taking in more food in one mouthful than any other animal on Earth. Krill make up the vast majority of a blue whale's diet. The blue whale is a filter-feeder. Its throat has an expandable, pleated structure to engulf a volume of water and prey that is greater than the animal's own body weight.

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What do blue whales eat?

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: 11 Scariest Ocean Predators

More people have traveled into space than have traveled to the deep ocean realm…. Most people familiar with the oceans know about life only in the intertidal zone, where the water meets land, and the epipelagic zone, the upper sunlit zone of the open ocean. Though these zones contain an abundance of ocean life because sunlight is available for photosynthesis, they make up only a small fraction of the ocean biome. In fact, most of the ocean is cold, dark and deep.

It is important to realize that photosynthesis occurs only down to about — m, and sunlight disappears altogether at 1, m or less, while the ocean descends to a maximum depth of about 11, m in the Mariana Trench! Until recently, the deep sea was largely unexplored. But advances in deep sea submersibles and image capturing and sampling technologies are increasing the opportunities for marine biologists to observe and uncover the mysteries of the deep ocean realm.

Deep sea research is vital because this area is such an enormous part of the biosphere. Despite its depth and distance, it is still our backyard in comparison to outer space. And yet, human exploration has revealed more detail about the surface of the moon and Mars that it has about the deep sea! Consider that hydrothermal vents and their unique organisms, which revolutionized our ideas about energy sources and the adaptability of life, were only discovered in There may be yet other life-altering discoveries to be found at the bottom of the ocean.

The oceans are divided into two broad realms; the pelagic and the benthic. Pelagic refers to the open water in which swimming and floating organisms live. Organisms living there are called the pelagos. The last three zones have no sunlight at all. Benthic zones are defined as the bottom sediments and other surfaces of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos.

They live in a close relationship with the bottom of the sea, with many of them permanently attached to it, some burrowed in it, others swimming just above it. In oceanic environments, benthic habitats are zoned by depth, generally corresponding to the comparable pelagic zones: the intertidal where sea meets land, with no pelagic equivalent , the subtidal the continental shelves, to about m , the bathyal generally the continental slopes to 4, m , the abyssal most of the deep ocean seafloor, 4, — 6, m , and the hadal the deep trenches 6, to 11, m.

There are several types of deep benthic surfaces, each having different life forms. Rocky areas are found on the flanks of islands, seamounts, rocky banks, on mid-ocean ridges and their rift valleys, and some parts of continental slopes. At the mid-ocean ridges, where magma wells up and pushes seafloor tectonic plates apart, even flat surfaces are rocky because these areas are too geologically new to have accumulated much mud or ooze. Third, in some areas certain chemical reactions produce unique benthic formations.

Exploration of these zones has presented a challenge to scientists for decades and much remains to be discovered. However, advances in technology are increasingly allowing scientists to learn more about the strange and mysterious life that exists in this harsh environment. Life in the deep sea must withstand total darkness except for non-solar light such as bioluminescence , extreme cold, and great pressure.

To learn more about deep-sea marine life, sophisticated data collection devices have been developed to collect observations and even geological and biological samples from the deep. First, advances in observational equipment such as fiber optics that use LED light and low light cameras has increased our understanding of the behaviors and characteristics of deep sea creatures in their natural habitat.

Second, remotely operated vehicles ROVs have been used underwater since the s. ROVs are basically unmanned submarine robots with umbilical cables used to transmit data between the vehicle and researcher for remote operation in areas where diving is constrained by physical hazards. ROVs are often fitted with video and still cameras as well as with mechanical tools such as mechanical arms for specimen retrieval and measurements.

Alvin is an American deep sea submersible built in that has been used extensively over the past 4 decades to shed light on the black ocean depths. Like ROVs, it has cameras and mechanical arms. This sub, which carries 3 people typically a pilot and 2 scientists , has been used for more than 4, dives reaching a maximum depth of more than 4, m. France, Japan and Russia have similar manned scientific submersibles that can reach somewhat greater depths, while China is currently building one to reach 7, m.

Until , only one manned submarine device has ever reached the bottom of Mariana trench at almost 11, m: the bathyscaphe Trieste manned by Jacques Piccard and Don Walsh. Don Walsh was invited to join the expedition.

All these factors have led to fascinating adaptions of deep sea life for sensing, feeding, reproducing, moving, and avoiding being eaten by predators. The deep sea begins below about m, where sunlight becomes inadequate for photosynthesis. This faint light is deep blue in color because all the other colors of light are absorbed at depth. The deepest ocean waters below 1, m are as black as night as far as sunlight is concerned.

And yet, there IS some light. This is bioluminescence , a chemical reaction in a microbe or animal body that creates light without heat, and it is very common. And yet, this light is low compared to sunlight, so animals here — as well as those in the mesopelagic zone — need special sensory adaptations.

Many deep-sea fish such as the stout blacksmelt have very large eyes to capture what little light exists. Other animals such as tripodfishes are essentially blind and instead rely on other, enhanced senses including smell, touch and vibration. Most bioluminescence is blue, or blue-green, because those are the colors that travel farthest in water. As a result, most animals have lost the ability to see red light, since that is the color of sunlight that disappears first with depth.

But a few creatures, like the dragonfish , have evolved the ability to produce red light. Pressure increases 1 atmosphere atm for each 10 m in depth. The deep sea varies in depth from m to about 11, m, therefore pressure ranges from 20 atm to more than 1, atm. High pressures can cause air pockets, such as in fish swim bladders , to be crushed, but it does not compress water itself very much. Instead, high pressure distorts complex biomolecules — especially membranes and proteins — upon which all life depends.

Indeed, many food companies now use high pressure to sterilize their products such as packaged meats. Life appears to cope with pressure effects on biomolecules in two ways. First, their membranes and proteins have pressure-resistant structures that work by mechanisms not yet fully understood, but which also mean their biomolecules do not work well under low pressure in shallow waters.

These are small organic molecules recently discovered that somehow prevent pressure from distorting large biomolecules. One of these piezolytes is trimethylamine oxide TMAO. This molecule is familiar to most people because it gives rise to the fishy smell of marine fish and shrimp. TMAO is found at low levels in shallow marine fish and shrimp that humans routinely eat, but TMAO levels increase linearly with depth and pressure in other species.

Really deep fish, including some grenadiers which humans are now fishing, smell much more fishy! Animals brought from great depth to the surface in nets and submersible sample boxes generally die; in the case of some but not most deep-sea fishes, their gas-filled swim bladder adapted to resist high pressure expands to a deadly size.

However, the vast majority of deep-sea life has no air pockets that would expand as pressure drops during retrieval. Instead, it is thought that rapid pressure as well as temperature changes kill them because their biomolecules no longer work well high TMAO does not help, as it appears to be too high in deep-sea life for biomolecules to work properly at the surface.

Advances in deep sea technology are now enabling scientists to collect species samples in chambers under pressure so that they reach the surface for study in good condition. Pressure-adapted microbes have been retrieved from trenches down to 11, m, and have been found in the laboratory to have all these adaptations pressure-resistant biomolecules and piezolytes.

However, pressure adaptations have only been studied in animals down to about 5, m. We do not yet know if the adaptations found at those depths work at greater depths down to 11, m.

Except in polar waters, the difference in temperature between the euphotic, or sunlit, zone near the surface and the deep sea can be dramatic because of thermoclines, or the separation of water layers of differing temperatures. In most parts of the deep sea, the water temperature is more uniform and constant.

However, water never freezes in the deep sea note that, because of salt, seawater freezes at If it did somehow freeze, it would just float to the surface as ice! Life in the deep is thought to adapt to this intense cold in the same ways that shallow marine life does in the polar seas. Membranes are made of fats and need to be somewhat flexible to work well, so you may be familiar with this adaptation in your kitchen. Butter, a saturated fat, is very hard in your refrigerator and would make a poor membrane in the cold, while olive oil — an unsaturated fat — is semi-solid and would make a good flexible membrane.

However, as with pressure, there is a tradeoff: loose membranes and proteins of cold-adapted organisms readily fall apart at higher temperatures much as olive oil turns to liquid at room temperature.

The dark, cold waters of much of the deep sea have adequate oxygen. This is because cold water can dissolve more oxygen than warm water, and the deepest waters generally originate from shallow polar seas. In certain places in the northern and southern seas, oxygen-rich waters cool off so much that they become dense enough to sink to the bottom of the sea.

These so-called thermohaline currents can travel at depth around the globe, and oxygen remains sufficient for life because there is not enough biomass to use it all up. However, there are also oxygen-poor environments in intermediate zones, wherever there is no oxygen made by photosynthesis and there are no thermohaline currents. These areas, called oxygen minimum zones , usually lie at depths between — 1, m in temperate and tropical regions.

Here, animals as well as bacteria that feed on decaying food particles descending through the water column use oxygen, which can consequently drop to near zero in some areas. Biologists are still investigating how animals survive under such conditions. Although most of the deep seafloor has oxygen, there are exceptions in isolated basins with no circulation.

Some of these basins that have no oxygen are found at the bottom of the Mediterranean Sea. In , scientists investigating these at 3, m depths made a startling discovery: the first known animals to be living continuously without any oxygen. The animals are tiny Loriciferans , members of an animal phylum first discovered in How they can survive these conditions is not yet known [see Animals thrive without oxygen at sea bottom ].

Deep sea creatures have evolved some fascinating feeding mechanisms because food is scarce in these zones. In the absence of photosynthesis, most food consists of detritus — the decaying remains of microbes, algae, plants and animals from the upper zones of the ocean — and other organisms in the deep.

The corpses of large animals such as whales that sink to the bottom provide infrequent but enormous feasts for deep sea animals and are consumed by a variety of species. This includes jawless fish such as hagfish , which burrow into carcasses, quickly consuming them from the inside out; scavenger sharks; crabs; and a newly discovered group of worms called Osedax , meaning bone-eater which grow root-like structures into the bone marrow!

Deep-sea pelagic fish such as gulper eels have very large mouths, huge hinged jaws and large and expandable stomachs to engulf and process large quantities of scarce food. Many deep-sea pelagic fish have extremely long fang-like teeth that point inward. This ensures that any prey captured has little chance of escape. Some species, such as the deep sea anglerfish and the viperfish , are also equipped with a long, thin modified dorsal fin on their heads tipped with a photophore lit with bioluminescence used to lure prey.

Others, such as rattails or grenadiers pictured below cruise slowly over the seafloor listening and smelling for food sources failing from above, which they engulf with their large mouths.

Plastic surrounds us. It is not just the obvious places—like water bottles and straws. It is also used to build our cars and is found in our face washes and fabrics.

Friday, January 21, The ocean covers 70 percent of the Earth 's surface. It contains about 1. The ocean makes all life on Earth possible, and makes the planet appear blue when viewed from space. Earth is the only planet in our solar system that is definitely known to contain liquid water.

Whale fall

On the swells of the Sea of Cortez, everything looks like a whale. Lulled by disappointment, the rocking boat and general monotony, I drift into torpor. Then, less than half a mile away, a series of unmistakable spouts erupts, and bursts of exhalation carry across the water. The calves and juveniles are 15 to 20 feet long, and some of the larger females are more than 30 feet from head to tail a male would be almost twice as long.

Marine mammal

Jump in on a wide variety of experiences and events that will make your trip to Georgia Aquarium even more memorable. Join us for an exciting night of adventure and exploration! Georgia Aquarium offers sleepovers for families, youth groups, schools, companies, and more. Suit up and stand waist-deep in our beluga habitat alongside our beluga whale trainers. Remember me Forgot Password.

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Are Dolphins OP? - The Whale Tier List
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.

Jump to navigation. Many species that live in the open ocean or pelagic realm truly live in an ocean universe. They spend their entire lives surrounded by water on all sides and do not know that anything else even exists. In the case of the deep open ocean, organisms never even see sunlight. As land mammals that breathe air, walk on land, and rely on our sense of sight for almost all functions, it is difficult for people even experts to comprehend that most of the organisms on the planet are never exposed to air, land, or sunlight. The open ocean is an enormous place. In order to better study and understand this huge ecosystem, scientists divide the it into different zones:. The epipelagic zone or upper open ocean is the part of the ocean where there is enough sunlight for algae to utilize photosynthesis the process by which organisms use sunlight to convert carbon dioxide into food.

The Deep Sea

More people have traveled into space than have traveled to the deep ocean realm…. Most people familiar with the oceans know about life only in the intertidal zone, where the water meets land, and the epipelagic zone, the upper sunlit zone of the open ocean. Though these zones contain an abundance of ocean life because sunlight is available for photosynthesis, they make up only a small fraction of the ocean biome.

Whale falls were first observed in the late s with the development of deep-sea robotic exploration. Deep sea whale falls are thought to be hotspots of adaptive radiation for specialized fauna. In the past three years whale fall sites have come under scrutiny, and new species have been discovered, including potential whale fall specialists.

This new edition of Encyclopedia of Ocean Sciences summarizes the breadth of knowledge about them, providing revised, up to date entries as well coverage of new topics in the field. New and expanded sections include microbial ecology, high latitude systems and the cryosphere, climate and climate change, hydrothermal and cold seep systems. The structure of the work provides a modern presentation of the field, reflecting the input and different perspective of chemical, physical and biological oceanography, the specialized area of expertise of each of the three Editors-in-Chief. In this framework maximum attention has been devoted to making this an organic and unified reference. Professor J. He attained the rank of Professor in and served as Dean from September to January Professor Cochran's research interests include the use of naturally occurring radionuclides as tracers for oceanic processes and the fate of contaminants in the marine environment. He has studied biogeochemical processes in both the water column and bottom sediments, and has worked in coastal and open ocean environments as well as in lakes, rivers and groundwater. Professor Cochran has served as a consultant to the International Atomic Energy Agency and on numerous regional, national and international committees and advisory groups. Henry Bokuniewicz is an internationally recognized expert on beach erosion, dredging, coastal groundwater issues, and pollution in the coastal ocean.

A whale fall occurs when the carcass of a whale has fallen onto the ocean floor at a depth In the coastal ocean, a higher incidence of predators as well as warmer Whales and some other large marine animals feed on and follow large Whale falls are distributed heterogeneously throughout space and time, with a.

Smithsonian Ocean

All rights reserved. The lowly krill averages only about two inches in length, but it represents a giant-sized link in the global food chain. They in turn are the main staple in the diets of literally hundreds of different animals, from fish, to birds, to baleen whales. Pink and opaque, Antarctic krill Euphausia superba are among the largest of the 85 known krill species. Their estimated numbers range from million tons to 6 billion tons in the waters around Antarctica. During certain times of year, krill congregate in swarms so dense and widespread that they can be seen from space.

The Sperm Whale’s Deadly Call

Due to the space requirements for these intelligent and dynamic animals, we do not exhibit live whales or dolphins. Gray whales are featured in signage. Gray whales require different habitats for foraging and reproduction. Gray whales are mysticetes, baleen whales. They have a robust but slender body tapered at both ends and a small head that appears triangular when viewed from above. Their upper jaw is arched in profile and extends beyond the lower jaw. Their rostrum top of head is dimpled and in each of the depressions there is a single, irregular, bristly hair. These hairs are also found along the side of the lower jaw. Called vibrissae, they are tactile sensors like cat and sea lion whiskers. These whales have two to five ventral throat grooves, or creases, that are about 1.

The Deep Sea

Slow-moving, hulking ships crisscross miles of ocean in a lawn mower pattern, wielding an array of 12 to 48 air guns blasting pressurized air repeatedly into the depths of the ocean. The sound waves hit the sea floor, penetrating miles into it, and bounce back to the surface, where they are picked up by hydrophones. The acoustic patterns form a three-dimensional map of where oil and gas most likely lie.

What do blue whales eat?

Черт побери. - проговорил Макс, когда из открытого ящика на середину комнаты волной хлынули крошечные октопауки лишь нескольких сантиметров роста.

- Это.

Beluga Whale

Кроме. Макса следовало выставить вон, пока он не учинил истерику и не помешал родам.

Кажется, да, - ответил Ричард, - только шишка выросла. - Значит, теперь нас убьют. - спросил Арчи. - Наверное, - мрачно отозвался Ричард.

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