Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table 1. The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing. This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries. Other articles in this chapter and Encyclopaedia deal with particular food industry sectors and particular hazards. The food industry today has become highly diversified, with manufacturing ranging from small, traditional, family-run activities that are highly labour intensive, to large, capital-intensive and highly mechanized industrial processes.
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Canned FoodsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How It's Made Canned Soup
Graham, which were revised by Donald L. The term food industries covers a series of industrial activities directed at the processing, conversion, preparation, preservation and packaging of foodstuffs see table 1. The raw materials used are generally of vegetable or animal origin and produced by agriculture, farming, breeding and fishing.
This article provides an overview of the complex of food industries. Other articles in this chapter and Encyclopaedia deal with particular food industry sectors and particular hazards. The food industry today has become highly diversified, with manufacturing ranging from small, traditional, family-run activities that are highly labour intensive, to large, capital-intensive and highly mechanized industrial processes.
Many food industries depend almost entirely on local agriculture or fishing. In the past, this meant seasonal production and hiring of seasonal workers. Improvements in food processing and preservation technologies have taken some of the pressure off workers to process food quickly to prevent spoilage.
This has resulted in a decrease in seasonal employment fluctuations. However, certain industries still have seasonal activities, such as fresh fruit and vegetable processing and increases in production of baked goods, chocolate and so forth for holiday seasons. Seasonal workers are often women and foreign workers. Much of this increase can be attributed to an increased demand for processed food and drink, especially in developing countries where the market has not yet been saturated.
This increase in output of food and drink products, however, has not resulted in increased employment because of intensified competition, which has resulted in decreased employment in many food industries, especially in industrialized countries. This is due to increased productivity and mechanization in many of these industries. Demographic pressure, uneven distribution of agricultural resources and the need to insure preservation of food products to facilitate their better distribution explain the rapid technical evolution in the food industries.
Constant economic and marketing pressures drive the industry to provide new and different products for market, while other operations may make the same product in the same way for decades. Even highly industrialized facilities often resort to seemingly archaic techniques when starting new products or processes. In practice, to satisfy population requirements, there is a need not only for a sufficient quantity of foodstuffs, which presupposes an increase of production, but also strict control of sanitation to obtain the quality essential to maintain the health of the community.
Only modernization of techniques justified by production volumes in a stable production environment will eliminate manual handling hazards. In spite of the extreme diversity of the food industries, the preparation processes can be divided into handling and storage of raw materials, extraction, processing, preservation and packaging. Manipulation of the raw materials, the ingredients during processing and the finished products is varied and diverse. Mechanical handling may involve: self-propelled in-plant transport with or without palletization or super or bulk sacks often containing several thousand pounds of dry powder material ; conveyor belts e.
Storage of raw materials is most important in a seasonal industry e. It is usually done in silos, tanks, cellars, bins or cold stores. Storage of the finished products varies according to their nature liquid or solid , the method of preserving and the method of packaging loose, in sack or super sack, in bundles, boxes or bottles ; and the respective premises must be planned to suit the conditions of handling and preserving traffic aisles, ease of access, temperature and humidity suited to product, cold-storage installations.
Commodities may be held in oxygen-deficient atmospheres or under fumigation while in storage or just before shipment. To extract a specific food product from fruit, cereals or liquids, any of the following methods may be used: crushing, pounding or grinding, extraction by heat direct or indirect , extraction by solvents, drying and filtration. Crushing, pounding and grinding are usually preparatory operations—for example, the crushing of cocoa beans and the slicing of sugar beet.
In other cases it may be the actual extraction process, as in flour milling. Heat can be used directly as a means of preparation by extraction, as in roasting e. Oils can be extracted equally well by combining and mixing the crushed fruit with solvents that are later eliminated by filtering and reheating. The separation of liquid products is carried out by centrifuging turbines in a sugar refinery or by filtering through filter presses in breweries and in oil and fat production.
Operations in processing food products are extremely varied and can be described only after individual study of each industry, but the following general procedures are used: fermentation, cooking, dehydration and distillation.
Fermentation, obtained usually by addition of a micro-organism to the previously prepared product, is practiced in bakeries, breweries, the wine and spirits industry and the cheese products industry. See also the chapter Beverage industry. Cooking occurs in many manufacturing operations: canning and preserving of meat, fish, vegetables and fruits; ready-to-serve meat-processing plants e.
In other cases, cooking is done in a vacuum-sealed container and produces a concentration of the product e. Besides the drying of products by the sun, as with many tropical fruits, dehydration can be carried out in hot air fixed dryers or drying tunnels , by contact on a drying drum heated by steam, such as in the instant-coffee industry and the tea industry , vacuum drying often combined with filtering and lyophilization freeze drying , where the product is first frozen solid and then dried by vacuum in a heated chamber.
Distillation is used in the making of spirits. The fermented liquid, treated to separate grain or fruit, is vaporized in a still; the condensed vapour is then collected as liquid ethyl alcohol. Briefly, the first three methods destroy microbial life; the latter merely inhibit growth.
Raw ingredients such as fish and meat, fruit or vegetables are taken fresh and preserved by one of the above methods, or a mixture of different foods are processed to form a product or dish, which is then preserved. Such products include soups, meat dishes and puddings.
Food preservation goes back to the last Ice Age, about 15, BC, when Cro-Magnon humans discovered for the first time a way of preserving food by smoking it. The evidence for this lies in the caves at Les Eyzies in the Dordogne in France, where this way of life is well portrayed in carvings, engravings and paintings.
From then to the present day, although many methods have been used and still are, heat remains one of the principal cornerstones of food preservation. High-temperature processes can destroy bacteria, depending on the cooking temperature and duration. Sterilization mainly used in canneries involves submitting the already canned product to the action of steam, generally in a closed container such as an autoclave or continuous cooker.
Pasteurization—the term is particularly reserved for liquids such as fruit juice, beer, milk or cream—is carried out at a lower temperature and for a short time. Smoking is carried out mainly on fish, ham and bacon, assuring dehydration and giving a distinctive flavor. Ionizing radiation sterilization is used heavily on spices in some countries to reduce wastage and spoilage.
However, sterilizing canned foods with radiation requires such high dosage that unacceptable flavours and odours result. Ionizing radiation has two other well recognized uses in the food industry—the screening of food packs for foreign matter and monitoring to detect underfilling. Microwave sterilization is another type of electromagnetic emission that is currently finding use in the food industry. It is used for rapidly thawing raw frozen ingredients before further processing, as well as for heating frozen cooked foods in 2 to 3 minutes.
Such a method, with its low moisture content loss, preserves the appearance and flavour of the food. Drying is a common preservation process. Sun drying is the oldest and most widely used method of food preservation. Today foodstuffs may be dried in air, superheated steam, in vacuum, in inert gas and by direct application of heat.
Many types of dryers exist, the particular type being dependent on the nature of the material, the desired form of finished product and so on. Dehydration is a process in which heat is transferred into the water in the food, which is vapourized.
The water vapour is then removed. Low-temperature processes involve storage in a cold store the temperature determined by the nature of the products , freezing and deep-freezing, which allows foodstuffs to be preserved in their naturally fresh state, by various methods of slow or rapid freezing.
With freeze drying, the material to be dried is frozen and placed in a sealed chamber. The chamber pressure is reduced and maintained at a value below 1 mm Hg. Heat is applied to the material, the surface ice heats up and the resultant water vapour is drawn off by the vacuum system.
As the ice boundary recedes into the material, the ice sublimes in situ and the water percolates to the surface through the pore structure of the material. The technology, which is difficult, is a spin-off from space travel. Open-shelf stability is achieved by suitable control of acidity, redox potential, humectants and preservatives. Most developments to date have been in foods for pet animals. Whatever the preservation process, the food to be preserved has first to be prepared.
Meat preservation involves a butchery department; fish needs cleaning and gutting, filleting, curing and so on. Before fruit and vegetables can be preserved they have to be washed, cleaned, blanched, perhaps graded, peeled, stalked, shelled and stoned. Many of the ingredients have to be chopped, sliced, minced or pressed. There are many methods of packaging food, including canning, aseptic packaging and frozen packaging. The conventional method of canning is based on the original work of Appert in France, for which in the French government awarded him a prize of 12, francs.
He preserved food in glass containers. In Dartford, England, in , Donkin and Hall set up the first cannery using tinned iron containers. Today the world uses several million tonnes of tinplate annually for the canning industry, and a substantial amount of preserved food is packed into glass jars.
The process of canning consists of taking cleaned food, raw or partly cooked but not intentionally sterilized, and packing it into a can that is sealed with a lid. The can is then heated, usually by steam under pressure, to a certain temperature for a period of time to allow penetration of the heat to the centre of the can, destroying the microbial life.
The can is then cooled in air or chlorinated water, after which it is labelled and packed. Changes in processing have occurred over the years. Continuous sterilizers cause less damage to cans by impact and allow cooling and drying in a closed atmosphere.
Foods can also be heat preserved in retortable pouches. These are bags of small cross-sectional area made from laminates of aluminium and heat-sealable plastics. The process is the same as for conventional canning, but better taste properties are claimed for the products because sterilization times can be reduced.
Very careful control of the retorting process is essential to avoid damage to the heat seals with subsequent bacterial spoilage. There have been recent developments in the aseptic packaging of food.
The process is fundamentally different from conventional canning. In the aseptic method the food container and closure are sterilized separately, and the filling and closing are done in a sterile atmosphere.
Product quality is optimal because heat treatment of the foodstuff can be controlled precisely and is independent of the size or material of the container. Of concern is employee exposure to the sterilizing agents. It is likely that the method will become more widely used because overall it should result in energy savings.
Developments on particulate foodstuffs will follow. One likely benefit in food factories will be the reduction of noise if rigid metallic containers are replaced. Such containers may also cause problems by contaminating preserved food with lead and tin. These are minimized by new-type two-piece containers drawn from lacquered tinplate and three-piece containers with welded instead of soldered side seams.
This research report categorizes the global Canned Food market by companies, region, type and end-use industry. For competitor segment, the Canned Food Market report includes global key players of fixed anode Canned Food as well as some small players. The growing trend in the canned food market is innovations in packaging. With increase in demand for chemical-free canned foods, manufacturers are focusing on innovations in packaging.
[Raw materials for canning industry enterprises] 
The U. Improvement in distribution infrastructure and the resultant increasing popularity of ready-to-eat food products, coupled with the affordability of canned foods and changing lifestyles is expected to propel the industry growth over the forecast period. The market exhibits the presence of large players acquiring smaller entities with these players reducing prices, thus, yielding to intense competition. It is also observed that the exit barriers for canned food companies is high owing to divestment of assets and higher fixed costs of automated processes thus intensifying the rivalry among competitors. The demand in the U.
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Canned Foods Market Research Reports & Industry Analysis
The growing trend in the canned food market is innovations in packaging. With increase in demand for chemical-free canned foods, manufacturers are focusing on innovations in packaging. Many brands of canned food products have started offering food in BPA-free containers.
A new survey reveals that for a majority of Americans, a home-cooked meal means turning to their pantry. An overwhelming 98 percent of Americans currently have canned foods in their kitchens, with the average pantry stocked with 24 cans. Canned corn is king, and vegetables top the list of America's most popular canned ingredients present in 79 percent of American homes , followed by beans 74 percent , broths, stocks and condensed cooking soups 71 percent , fruits 67 percent and meats and seafood 54 percent. This portrait of America's Cantry provides insights into how Americans shop and put homemade meals on their family tables, day in and day out. Americans rely on canned foods for mealtime solutions, and are always looking for inspiration, with 68 percent agreeing that they need new canned food recipe ideas. Launched in February , Cans Get You Cooking is designed to showcase the many benefits of cooking with canned foods, and demonstrate the variety of ways consumers can count on canned foods to help them get delicious, nutritious meals on the table for their family that they can feel good about, everyday. To learn more about the Cans Get You Cooking campaign, visit www. About Can Manufacturers Institute CMI is the national trade association of the metal can manufacturing industry and its suppliers in the United States.
Consumer Trends: Canned Food Is King
NAICS-Based Product Codes: , , , , , , , A, D, G, J, W, , , , B, W, , M, , , , 31,, , P1, , and The canning of food began early in the nineteenth century when Nicholas Appert, a French chef and candy maker, responded to a contest held by Napoleon Bonaparte. Bonaparte hoped to supply his troops with wholesome preserved foods when on campaign. Appert invented canning in glass containers in Britain, Napoleon's chief political adversary, rapidly responded. In the Englishman Peter Durand received a patent for food preservation. He used containers made of tin-coated sheets of iron hoping to produce a less breakable and more easily transported product. Durand was thus the inventor of the tin can, so called—although tin was only a coating intended to protect the underlying metal from the acids in foods. Canning expanded rapidly. The Civil War greatly accelerated use of canned foods.
Canning is a method of preserving food in which the food contents are processed and sealed in an airtight container jars like Mason jars , and steel and tin cans. Canning provides a shelf life typically ranging from one to five years, although under specific circumstances it can be much longer. In , samples of canned food from the wreck of the Bertrand , a steamboat that sank in the Missouri River in , were tested by the National Food Processors Association. Although appearance, smell and vitamin content had deteriorated, there was no trace of microbial growth and the year-old food was determined to be still safe to eat. During the first years of the Napoleonic Wars , the French government offered a hefty cash award of 12, francs to any inventor who could devise a cheap and effective method of preserving large amounts of food. The larger armies of the period required increased and regular supplies of quality food.
Just as the American Civil War promoted the rapid development of the American canned processing industry, before the New China was founded The New China, The PRC , canned processing has not formed into an industry in China yet, in The whole production that China yielded was less than tons. After the founding of new China, especially before the Korean War outbreak, the war to resist U. In , China's canned export volume reached 95, tons, nearly , tons.
And since canning technology came of age in the 20 th century, the can has provided a safe, effective and affordable means of preserving food and vital nutrients such as vitamins and fatty acids for millions of people. Whilst many new packaging formats have been developed since its invention, the can has endured. Although some people might associate it primarily with staple food items or perhaps low value products, steel for packaging and the steel can will remain at the very centre of the food packaging stage for many years to come, providing high quality, nutritious and varied food stuffs for people throughout the world. The first canned foods appeared in the 19th century, driven by the need to preserve food on long maritime expeditions.
Written Paper. Derevyanko, O. Lookup at Google Scholar.
Роберт Тернер обработал рану Макса Паккетта и извлек из нее пулю. За процедурой следили оба пятилетних близнеца Ватанабэ, весьма заинтригованные происходящим. Драчливый Галилей все проталкивался на лучшее место, и Наи пришлось разрешить два конфликта между братьями в пользу Кеплера.