Are you the type of person who has to put your creative stamp on everything? Notebooks provide an easy way to create personalized supplies to use at school, work, or in your home office. The following ways to decorate a notebook cover are fun, creative, and easy DIY projects that anyone can do. This simple DIY dresses up an ordinary notebook with a fabric of your choice. Customize with a bold pattern or use something a little more subtle that still reflects your personality.
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26 Ways to Decorate a NotebookVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Unique Japanese Notebooks for Students
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood , rags or grasses , and drying them into flexible sheets. It is a versatile material with many uses, including writing , printing , packaging, cleaning , decorating, and a number of industrial and construction processes. Papers are essential in legal or non-legal documentation. The pulp papermaking process developed in China during the early 2nd century CE, possibly as early as the year CE,  by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun , although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BCE in China.
The oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to the 2nd century BCE in China. In the 13th century, the knowledge and uses of paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe , where the first water powered paper mills were built.
Keller independently developed processes for pulping wood fibres. Before the industrialisation of paper production the most common fibre source was recycled fibres from used textiles, called rags. The rags were from hemp , linen and cotton. It was not until the introduction of wood pulp in that paper production was not dependent on recycled materials from ragpickers.
Papyrus is a lamination of natural plant fibres, while paper is manufactured from fibres whose properties have been changed by maceration. To make pulp from wood, a chemical pulping process separates lignin from cellulose fibres.
This is accomplished by dissolving lignin in a cooking liquor, so that it may be washed from the cellulose ; this preserves the length of the cellulose fibres. Paper made from chemical pulps are also known as wood-free papers —not to be confused with tree-free paper ; this is because they do not contain lignin, which deteriorates over time.
There are three main chemical pulping processes: the sulfite process dates back to the s and it was the dominant method extent before the second world war. The kraft process , invented in the s and first used in the s, is now the most commonly practiced strategy, one of its advantages is the chemical reaction with lignin, that produces heat, which can be used to run a generator.
Most pulping operations using the kraft process are net contributors to the electricity grid or use the electricity to run an adjacent paper mill. Another advantage is that this process recovers and reuses all inorganic chemical reagents.
Soda pulping is another specialty process used to pulp straws , bagasse and hardwoods with high silicate content. In the TMP process, wood is chipped and then fed into steam heated refiners, where the chips are squeezed and converted to fibres between two steel discs.
In the groundwood process, debarked logs are fed into grinders where they are pressed against rotating stones to be made into fibres. Mechanical pulps have rather short fibres, thus producing weak paper. Although large amounts of electrical energy are required to produce mechanical pulp, it costs less than the chemical kind. Paper recycling processes can use either chemically or mechanically produced pulp; by mixing it with water and applying mechanical action the hydrogen bonds in the paper can be broken and fibres separated again.
Most recycled paper contains a proportion of virgin fibre for the sake of quality; generally speaking, de-inked pulp is of the same quality or lower than the collected paper it was made from. Besides the fibres, pulps may contain fillers such as chalk or china clay ,  which improve its characteristics for printing or writing.
The pulp is fed to a paper machine where it is formed as a paper web and the water is removed from it by pressing and drying. Pressing the sheet removes the water by force; once the water is forced from the sheet, a special kind of felt, which is not to be confused with the traditional one, is used to collect the water; whereas when making paper by hand, a blotter sheet is used instead. Drying involves using air or heat to remove water from the paper sheets. In the earliest days of paper making, this was done by hanging the sheets like laundry; in more modern times, various forms of heated drying mechanisms are used.
On the paper machine, the most common is the steam-heated can dryer. The paper may then undergo sizing to alter its physical properties for use in various applications.
Paper at this point is uncoated. Coated paper has a thin layer of material such as calcium carbonate or china clay applied to one or both sides in order to create a surface more suitable for high-resolution halftone screens. Uncoated papers are rarely suitable for screens above lpi. Coated or uncoated papers may have their surfaces polished by calendering. Coated papers are divided into matte, semi-matte or silk, and gloss.
Gloss papers give the highest optical density in the printed image. The paper is then fed onto reels if it is to be used on web printing presses, or cut into sheets for other printing processes or other purposes. The fibres in the paper basically run in the machine direction. Sheets are usually cut "long-grain", i. Continuous form paper or continuous stationery is cut to width with holes punched at the edges, and folded into stacks.
All paper produced by paper machines as the Fourdrinier Machine are wove paper, i. Textured finishes, watermarks and wire patterns imitating hand-made laid paper can be created by the use of appropriate rollers in the later stages of the machine. Wove paper does not exhibit "laidlines", which are small regular lines left behind on paper when it was handmade in a mould made from rows of metal wires or bamboo.
Laidlines are very close together. They run perpendicular to the "chainlines", which are further apart. Handmade paper similarly exhibits "deckle edges", or rough and feathery borders. It is estimated that paper-based storage solutions captured 0. Paper has a major role in the visual arts. It is used by itself to form two and three-dimensional shapes and collages.
Paper is often characterized by weight. In the United States, the weight assigned to a paper is the weight of a ream, sheets, of varying "basic sizes", before the paper is cut into the size it is sold to end customers. The weight of a ream therefore depends on the dimensions of the paper and its thickness. Most commercial paper sold in North America is cut to standard paper sizes based on customary units and is defined by the length and width of a sheet of paper.
The ISO system used in most other countries is based on the surface area of a sheet of paper, not on a sheet's width and length. It was first adopted in Germany in and generally spread as nations adopted the metric system.
The largest standard size paper is A0 A zero , measuring one square meter approx. A1 is half the size of a sheet of A0 i. A2 is half the size of a sheet of A1, and so forth. Common sizes used in the office and the home are A4 and A3 A3 is the size of two A4 sheets. Paper may be classified into seven categories: . Much of the early paper made from wood pulp contained significant amounts of alum , a variety of aluminium sulfate salts that is significantly acidic.
Alum was added to paper to assist in sizing ,  making it somewhat water resistant so that inks did not "run" or spread uncontrollably. Early papermakers did not realize that the alum they added liberally to cure almost every problem encountered in making their product is eventually detrimental. Documents written on rag paper are significantly more stable. The use of non-acidic additives to make paper is becoming more prevalent, and the stability of these papers is less of an issue.
Paper made from mechanical pulp contains significant amounts of lignin , a major component in wood. In the presence of light and oxygen, lignin reacts to give yellow materials,  which is why newsprint and other mechanical paper yellows with age.
Paper made from bleached kraft or sulfite pulps does not contain significant amounts of lignin and is therefore better suited for books, documents and other applications where whiteness of the paper is essential.
Paper made from wood pulp is not necessarily less durable than a rag paper. The aging behavior of a paper is determined by its manufacture, not the original source of the fibers. Mechanical pulping yields almost a tonne of pulp per tonne of dry wood used, which is why mechanical pulps are sometimes referred to as "high yield" pulps.
With almost twice the yield as chemical pulping, mechanical pulps is often cheaper. Mass-market paperback books and newspapers tend to use mechanical papers. Book publishers tend to use acid-free paper , made from fully bleached chemical pulps for hardback and trade paperback books. Most paper companies also plant trees to help regrow forests. Conventional bleaching of wood pulp using elemental chlorine produces and releases into the environment large amounts of chlorinated organic compounds , including chlorinated dioxins.
Dioxins are highly toxic, and health effects on humans include reproductive, developmental, immune and hormonal problems. They are known to be carcinogenic. Some manufacturers have started using a new, significantly more environmentally friendly alternative to expanded plastic packaging.
Made out of paper, and known commercially as PaperFoam, the new packaging has mechanical properties very similar to those of some expanded plastic packaging, but is biodegradable and can also be recycled with ordinary paper. With increasing environmental concerns about synthetic coatings such as PFOA and the higher prices of hydrocarbon based petrochemicals, there is a focus on zein corn protein as a coating for paper in high grease applications such as popcorn bags.
Also, synthetics such as Tyvek and Teslin have been introduced as printing media as a more durable material than paper. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Paper disambiguation. Card and paper stock for crafts use comes in a wide variety of textures and colors. Main article: History of paper. See also: wood pulp and deinking. Further information: Papyrus. Main article: Papermaking. Main articles: kraft process , sulfite process , and soda pulping.
Main articles: Paper machine and papermaking. Main articles: Paper size , Grammage , and Paper density. Main articles: Environmental impact of paper and Deforestation.
Arches paper Buckypaper Continuous form paper or "continuous stationery" Deinked pulp Environmental impact of paper Fibre crop Graphene oxide paper Lokta paper Mass deacidification Paper and ink testing Paper armour Paper chemicals Paper clip Paper craft Parchment paper , a form of paper made to emulate the texture of animal-based parchment Roll hardness tester Seed paper Stone paper.
Bennett, Paul A. Books and Printing: A Treasury for Typophiles. The Library: An illustrated History.
Paper is a thin material produced by pressing together moist fibres of cellulose pulp derived from wood , rags or grasses , and drying them into flexible sheets. It is a versatile material with many uses, including writing , printing , packaging, cleaning , decorating, and a number of industrial and construction processes. Papers are essential in legal or non-legal documentation. The pulp papermaking process developed in China during the early 2nd century CE, possibly as early as the year CE,  by the Han court eunuch Cai Lun , although the earliest archaeological fragments of paper derive from the 2nd century BCE in China. The oldest known archaeological fragments of the immediate precursor to modern paper date to the 2nd century BCE in China. In the 13th century, the knowledge and uses of paper spread from China through the Middle East to medieval Europe , where the first water powered paper mills were built.
As National Stationery Week comes around April , we check out one of the cornerstones of the stationery kingdom: the notebook. Most people can agree, using a brand new notebook for the first time is bewilderingly satisfying. The list below is a mix of the best notebooks currently on the market, some of them great accessories and all perfect for jotting down your thoughts. Any birthdays coming up?
Wallpaper is a material used in interior decoration to decorate the interior walls of domestic and public buildings. It is usually sold in rolls and is applied onto a wall using wallpaper paste. Wallpapers can come plain as "lining paper" so that it can be painted or used to help cover uneven surfaces and minor wall defects thus giving a better surface , textured such as Anaglypta , with a regular repeating pattern design, or, much less commonly today, with a single non-repeating large design carried over a set of sheets. The smallest rectangle that can be tiled to form the whole pattern is known as the pattern repeat. Wallpaper printing techniques include surface printing , gravure printing , silk screen-printing , rotary printing , and digital printing. Wallpaper is made in long rolls which are hung vertically on a wall. Patterned wallpapers are designed so that the pattern "repeats", and thus pieces cut from the same roll can be hung next to each other so as to continue the pattern without it being easy to see where the join between two pieces occurs.
Ричарду и Арчи сообщили о суде за четыре часа, перед тем как они оставили подвал, чтобы предстать перед Накамурой.
Николь вышла из ванной комнаты и направилась в кабинет. Ричард сидел на полу между Геркулесом и Элли. - Самое легкое - это зафиксировать цветовую информацию и запомнить, - говорил. - Но гораздо труднее автоматически преобразовать зарегистрированную информацию в понятное английское предложение. Повернувшись к Геркулесу, Ричард произнес очень медленно: - Ваш язык настолько математичен (каждый цвет априори определен до ангстрема), что сенсор должен лишь идентифицировать цвета и ширину полос.
Вот и вся информация. При таких точных правилах несложно создать простейший алгоритм, устраняющий ошибки, - чтобы прибором могли пользоваться молодежь или невнимательные люди, - на случай единичных цветовых ошибок в левой и правой частях спектра. Преобразовывать речь октопауков на наш язык много сложнее.
Насколько я знаю, никто из инопланетян, за исключением, возможно, Предтеч, никогда не был удостоен части присутствовать при этом событии. Не сомневаюсь, что ты найдешь его весьма интересным. По пути в домен цариц, составлявший часть Изумрудного города, которую Николь никогда не посещала.
Быть может, сам ты и не живое существо, однако проявляешь изрядную мудрость по отношению к нам". - Позволь мне помочь тебе вернуться в постель, - проговорил Орел.
Эмоциональное выражение, - ответ Арчи сопровождался беспорядочными цветовыми пятнами. Ричард улыбнулся. - О'кей. Какого же рода эмоции ты выражаешь.
После долгой паузы Арчи сумел сделать полосы более ровными. - По-моему, вы называете это депрессией, - сказал октопаук. - Так вот что бывает, когда заканчивается баррикан. - спросил Ричард.
Арчи не отвечал.
Насколько я знаю - да, - ответил. - Готов ли инопланетянин подписать документ о безоговорочной капитуляции, с которым вас ознакомили. - Мы получили документ всего несколько часов назад и не имели возможности обсудить его как подобает. Я уже объяснил Арчи самые важные пункты, но еще не знаю. - Видите - тянут время, - прогромыхал Накамура, обращаясь к аудитории и размахивая листом белой бумаги. - Все условия капитуляции перечислены на одном этом листе.
- Он обернулся вновь к Ричарду и Арчи. - Ответ на вопрос очень прост, - сказал Накамура. - Короче, да или .
Самый перспективный из кандидатов изображен слева. Этот прототип питается примерно в два раза чаще, чем ныне используемый; однако нарушение равновесия обмена веществ увеличивает его чувствительность к заболеваниям. Все факты взвешиваются при текущем Ричарда водили от одной демонстрации к.
Арчи постоянно сопровождал. Менялись только октопауки, выступавшие с очередной мини-лекцией; они же участвовали потом и в дискуссии.
Николь повернулась и обняла Макса. - Что еще остается хмурой королеве, - непринужденно ответила .
И не в последний. Даже самые близкие пары не всегда понимают друг друга".
Рано или - Она боится, Наи, нового сердечного приступа, - ответила Эпонина. Быть может, даже за свой рассудок. Николь как бы не верит случившемуся.
Невзирая на сопротивление отца, Чаматеви приняла предложенные королем деньги, припасы и слонов, хотя пищи хватало только на пятимесячное путешествие через джунгли до Харипунджайя. Если бы легенда не была истиной и многочисленные племена долины не признали бы Чаматеви своей королевой, она бы не сумела вернуться к монам и ей пришлось бы продать себя в рабство.