The world of electricity can be very complicated. But what about electricity do we, in fact, know? Well, we do know electrical wires are designed to carry current from one element to another. Of course, as always, I am here to help with any confusion!
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How an Electrical Cable Is MadeVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Optical fiber cables, how do they work? - ICT #3
From until , in the wake of the EC grade aluminum fire saga that began in the mids as a result of the response of the construction industry to record-high copper prices, US residential builders installed copper-clad aluminum CCA building wire for residential branch circuits in tens of thousands perhaps even hundreds of thousands of single family homes, condominiums and apartments. In the United States, the decades of the s and the s were plagued by record-high copper prices, the war in Vietnam, gasoline shortages, trade embargos, a deep-rooted cultural paradigm-shift, presidential impeachment proceedings, and a severe economic recession.
Radicalism, conflict, and unorthodoxy defined the age. With the increase in the number of automobiles, as well as the fear of the increase of inner city crime, the nation as a whole continued to suburbanize, accelerating a migration to newly constructed neighborhoods miles from the large regional cities where once stood farmland, forest, and plains.
Cheap power abounded thanks to mass hydro and nuclear projects spread throughout the nation contributing to this growth. But, at the dawning of the seventies, with commodity prices at record highs, the need to economize new construction was evident.
Millions of new suburban homes needed to be built. To wire these new homes for cheap electricity with high-priced, foreign-sourced copper defeated the point, and chaffed the ideals of American ingenuity and national sovereignty. Cheap EC grade aluminum building wire was no longer an option.
Due in large part to thermal creep and galvanic corrosion issues as the primary causes of its lethal shortcomings, solid EC grade aluminum building wire had been ushered out of the US market by , and essentially all municipalities within the nation had banned it for use in all branch circuit building wire BCBW soon thereafter. Nevertheless, the US residential construction industry and its advocates continued to search for a lower cost alternative to solid copper.
As a result of five years of testing and vetting by accrediting agencies such as UL and the NEC , as well as by a handful of inventors and building wire manufacturers, a solution came in the form of copper-clad aluminum THHN and NM-B. First and foremost, it was safe and affordable. Even though it was slightly more expensive than the cheaper EC grade aluminum building wire, which was on the way out anyway, CCA still offered considerable savings over expensive solid copper.
Second, it was nearly three times lighter than copper diameter per diameter, making hand-toting heavy coils less of a chore, and pulling wire at the job-site a breeze. It was flexible, but yet sufficiently strong to pull through studs.
Third, it was not brittle like solid EC grade aluminum building wire that caused the fires during the s, and peeling the insulation to make connections was no different than with copper wire. Finally, because of the thick copper cladding covering the surface of the bare conductor, there was no fear of galvanic corrosion nor creep over decades of use in the circuit.
The same copper connectors and devices could be used regardless if a contractor installed solid copper or CCA. According to UL, dovetailing the two metals — CCA to Solid Copper — was a permissible installation technique as the surfaces of each wire were copper, and the thermal properties practically identical.
In short, the construction industry had finally found a low-cost, technically feasible alternative to solid copper for BCBW.
Residential builders cheered. A new way to cut construction costs as the suburban building boom rumbled on! But not for the same reasons that halted the EC grade aluminum building wire a decade before. This time, it was the change in the economy that suspended the business. By , the nagging US recession brought about by the Mideast oil embargo began to bite the residential construction business hard in the form of stagflation, sending copper prices to the floor for the better part of two years.
Purchasing a new home during this period became nearly impossible as finance rates hit double-digits. Production of CCA building wire ground to a halt and distribution programs were suspended indefinitely. The manufacturers of CCA were few, so the available capacity had not developed to near the size required to service the entire US residential construction industry. From through , due to record high copper prices, demand for CCA building wire far outweighed the ability to produce and distribute.
The factories could not keep up. The product was flying off the shelves. Those contractors lucky enough to find a supplier could not get enough of it.
Even homeowners benefited! They enjoyed safe electrical service while paying less for their new homes. From to the summer of , copper prices had rebounded just enough to allow distributors time enough to sell their excess inventories of CCA building wire accumulated before Although the rebound of copper prices was much needed for copper producers, it came too little too late for CCA producers.
Actual production of CCA building wire never resumed after , and by the fall of , copper prices dropped out of sight once again to record lows. For the next two decades, until January , copper prices operated within a sublime climate of unprecedented low values and nonvolatility.
For copper miners and commodity traders, this long period of economic doldrums was despised, akin to Purgatory, and became known as such within certain circles in the mining community. But this too was about to change. The intent is to integrate as many sources and voices as possible in the delivery of this information. In Part One of the paper, I will deal largely with history, economics, and standards.
I hope to recount the story of CCA from the players and the various companies involved in its development to the demographic and economic trends of the era that allowed it to emerge.
I will explain how CCA is manufactured, its mechanical and electrical characteristics, as well as what makes it remarkably suitable for applications like BCBW. In the face of inflation and general social uneasiness, for millions of Americans, the decade that started in January saw a deurbanization towards greener pastures.
Most large urban areas in the nation saw their population wane. But even the larger northeastern cities such as New York, Boston, and Washington DC experienced their own share of suburban flight to semi-rural communities with names like Amityville, Marshfield-Duxbury, and Alexandria.
Few understood the problem, nor were able to gauge the severity of it. According to Daniel Edelstein of the US Geological Survey, prices of copper cathode, the heavily-traded base form of copper, began to climb in the years of and due to voluntary production cuts by producers as well as excessive demand in support of the war in Vietnam.
From to , copper prices spiked to record highs as miners began to strike in South America and Africa. This push, so thought industry leaders and regulators of the time, would help to relieve the copper shortages, and perhaps bring down the cost of building new suburban homes. Regulators hastily allowed the product to enter the market without demanding a systematic change of the termination and device systems already in the market and designed to work with only solid copper.
EC Grade Aluminum failed miserably, ushering in a dark era of American history that resonates even louder today than back then. Certain non-ferrous industrial metals exhibit excellent thermo-electrical properties. Copper and aluminum are two of these metals. Both Copper and aluminum are very efficient conductors of power and are widely used in industry for this reason.
Copper is more thermally stable than solid EC grade aluminum which is Thus copper has been traditionally considered for use where electrical connections must maintain their integrity over long periods of service life with little-to-no direct observation. As a result, most low-tension conductor applications popular in the country today, such as THHN and NM-B, utilize copper as the base metal. Aluminum is much less expensive. Further, in relation to copper, aluminum is lighter.
Therefore, many applications in the high and medium tension conductor world can utilize EC grades of aluminum as the base metal. Being lighter, it can airily span distances. EC grade aluminum is also excellent when reinforced against creep by a steel core like with ACSR strands, for example. Aluminum is also found in abundance within our economy, much more so than copper.
The United States Geologic Survey reports that in , Peru and China are the next largest producers of copper, each at 1. The United States is the 4th largest producer of copper in the world at 1.
Aluminum, on the other hand, dwarfs the copper industry in as far as metric tons produced. In the United States alone, saw a production of aluminum of nearly 18 million metric tons by itself—the same tonnage of copper produced globally in In short, when comparing the two industries, aluminum is perhaps 6 X the size of the copper industry in terms of metric tons produced. Aluminum is also dispersed widely throughout the world, and not concentrated in the hands of few producers or countries.
In terms of feet of wire produced vs. In short, aluminum is much less subject to shortages and allocations. But what if out of necessity there came a need to marry the lightweight and economic advantages of aluminum, with the thermal characteristics and connectability of solid copper?
In Germany during the war years of the late s and s, such a need did in fact arise! The German government instituted a copper rationing campaign in support of its war effort, giving rise to the first CCA. It was actually developed in Germany to alleviate copper shortages in the s. The spray and electroplating techniques were inconsistent, too thin, and not uniform enough for the desired performance. The technique utilizing heat and pressure became the dominate method for cladding bimetal products.
Many advances to the cladding process and the metal alloys themselves have been made over the decades since the introduction of the product to the marketplace. Initial development of Copper Cladded Aluminum took the form of rolled sheets. Pressed coinage, medals, cookware, industrial stampings, plumbing pipes and architectural cladding tiles were its first applications.
CCA in the form of wire came later. Founded in Hanover, Germany, in as Hackethal Wire Works, this proud company eventually evolved into two of the most important companies in the modern nonferrous wire industry. Nexans, a global giant in power conductors, and RFS, a global leader in coaxial and wireless data communication systems, can both trace their roots to Hackethal. Many evolutions of the elemental copper cladding process followed, as did technology patents and protection measures, to keep the technology on the cutting edge, as well as out of the hands of competitors.
In , Dr. Gerhard Ziemek, a young Ph. But the theory behind this award-winning paper would not become reality until the sun had already set on CCA for power conductors. However, there was an American company also interested in the virtues of CCA wire, and armed with a stronger marketing staff than KM. In the late s, Texas Instruments TI , based in Dallas, TX, forecasted the coming global shortage of copper, which could mean considerable new business if they could develop an alternative.
TI quickly recognized that it needed to develop an in-house alternative to solid copper wire. TI had much ground to make up on the Germans, however. Over the next half decade, TI labored to develop a heat-bond process as efficient as Dr. With its new product, TI made it possible for a wire manufacturer to meet his production commitments within present copper allocations, and particularly without having to buy copper at premium prices.
Currently, 1. In recent months the shortage of copper has become acute because of the step-up of US military commitments and labor strife in Chile and Zambia, two leading copper producing countries.
At these sites we are producing cables - copper telecommunication cables, railway signalling cables and fiber optic cables — as well as the whole range of passive fiber optic system components for the telecommunication and railway industry. In addition, we are offering assembly services in the field of copper as well as fiber optic technology, whereby we are always available to our customers as a complete supplier in the area of passive telecommunications infrastructure. As a modern, medium-sized company with many years of experience we are distinguished in particular by flexibility, reliability and continuous further development. Get an overview as PDF-documents or flipping books.
Cables are important aspect of any industry. Paramount, being one of the India's largest manufacturer of cables and wires, produces a wide range of industrial cables including Multicore Cables, Low Voltage and High Voltage cables, Extra High Voltage Cables, etc. The cables are manufactured under eco friendly norms. It has been an incredible journey that started with a simple dream of providing world class and cost-effective products to feed the growing Indian market. Our founder, Late Mr.
Copper Clad Aluminum Building Wire for Use in Residential Branch Circuit Wiring
Also in the third generation we as a innovative cable specialist put emphasis on a permanent new and further development of our products by intensive research and development as well as qualified testing. We do not only produce cables but furnish problem solutions. Our customers receive custom-made solutions so called special cables that we are able to manufacture from a quantity of m. High flexibility and speed are our outstanding characteristics.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Copper Wire Manufacturing Process
Top Suppliers. In this article, to help you in your search for wire and cable suppliers and companies, we have compiled information on the top wire and cable manufacturers worldwide and the top cable manufacturers USA. Cable and wire are very closely related, as cable is simply a structure of multiple wires. Both can be used for a variety of applications, from power and data transmission to structural and control uses, depending on their materials and structure. Table 1 below provides information on the top U. Sales are in millions of U. Belden, Inc. Its products include copper, fiber, audio-video, industrial ethernet, data bus, multi-conductor, and VFD cable.
Special Cables • Temperature Measurement • Cable Harnessing
KEI was established in as a partnership firm under the name Krishna Electrical Industries, with prime business activity of manufacturing house wiring rubber cables. Headquartered in New Delhi India , the Company offers an extensive range of cabling solutions. Today, when the world is rediscovering India and her true potential, KEI under a dynamic leadership with a world view and products and solutions matched to the emerging opportunities of a new aspirational class of consumers is more than ready to take on the world and surge ahead!
From until , in the wake of the EC grade aluminum fire saga that began in the mids as a result of the response of the construction industry to record-high copper prices, US residential builders installed copper-clad aluminum CCA building wire for residential branch circuits in tens of thousands perhaps even hundreds of thousands of single family homes, condominiums and apartments. In the United States, the decades of the s and the s were plagued by record-high copper prices, the war in Vietnam, gasoline shortages, trade embargos, a deep-rooted cultural paradigm-shift, presidential impeachment proceedings, and a severe economic recession. Radicalism, conflict, and unorthodoxy defined the age. With the increase in the number of automobiles, as well as the fear of the increase of inner city crime, the nation as a whole continued to suburbanize, accelerating a migration to newly constructed neighborhoods miles from the large regional cities where once stood farmland, forest, and plains. Cheap power abounded thanks to mass hydro and nuclear projects spread throughout the nation contributing to this growth. But, at the dawning of the seventies, with commodity prices at record highs, the need to economize new construction was evident. Millions of new suburban homes needed to be built. To wire these new homes for cheap electricity with high-priced, foreign-sourced copper defeated the point, and chaffed the ideals of American ingenuity and national sovereignty. Cheap EC grade aluminum building wire was no longer an option. Due in large part to thermal creep and galvanic corrosion issues as the primary causes of its lethal shortcomings, solid EC grade aluminum building wire had been ushered out of the US market by , and essentially all municipalities within the nation had banned it for use in all branch circuit building wire BCBW soon thereafter. Nevertheless, the US residential construction industry and its advocates continued to search for a lower cost alternative to solid copper.
IEWC advances the way the world connects, stays powered, and drives forward through comprehensive supply chain and logistics solutions for wire, cable, and wire management products. For more than 55 years, IEWC has been an entrusted partner for thousands of companies in manufacturing, infrastructure, broadcast, professional audio-visual and telecommunications. Why choose rubber? Rubber portable cords are the best choice for portable power applications. Rubber surpasses plastic in flexibility, high temp performance, durability and more. Thermoset rubber has been heat vulcanized that will not distort its shape when exposed to excessive heat or open flame while thermoplastics will deform under high temps, degrading its physical attributes.
If you are looking for a company with 20 years of experience in manufacturing cables, among them cables with highest demands and features for equipment in industries like military, medical cables, telecommunication with braids, RF cable and many more Epsilon Industries y. Commonly the cables are used to transmit electricity or impulses of an electrical communication system. A selected size of bare wire is released from a drum to the coating roller. The coated cable is drawn through printed water cooling. In the above process Epsilon Ind y. Among the various production capabilities of cables Epsilon Industries y. Knows to provide a quick and professional response, with best production lines and equipment ready for the task. Our experienced engineering team are at your service, giving you the best performing cable at at the most attractive price.
Top Wire and Cable Manufacturers (USA and Global)
AlphaWire Founded in , AlphaWire designs and manufactures twelve product families encompassing more than 50, products — wire, cable, tubing, and accessories for a broad range of applications and markets. Armorcast Armorcast Products Company, Inc. Armorcast Products Company, Inc. American Polywater Corp.
Meridian Cable develops cable assemblies that meet the complex needs of industrial controls. Meridian has the experience, the tooling and a full complement of process capabilities to create the cable assemblies you need. Meridian supplies a vast range of cable assemblies for telecommunications in today's wired world.
Therefore, energy loss is minimized and large-scale power transmission and distribution is enabled. Currently, we are the only company in the world that owns both AC and DC superconductor technology.
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