These examples represent emulsions, which are stable mixtures of tiny droplets of one immiscible fluid within another, made possible by chemicals called emulsifiers. In both cases, emulsifiers are needed to prevent the suspended droplets from coalescing and breaking the emulsion. Anybody who has made a simple oil-and-vinegar salad dressing knows that, with enough shaking or whisking, one can make a temporary emulsion. However, in the absence of emulsifiers, this unstable emulsion breaks down within minutes, and the oil forms a layer on top of the vinegar.
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Optimization of Phenolic Based De-EmulsifiersVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: KS Emulsifier FL248 NC1080 7 2016
Of a variety of fat-and-oil products, a group of solid emulsion fat-and-oil products can be emphasized, including margarines, vegetable-cream and vegetable-fat spreads. These products were initially developed as an alternative to butter, however, their scope of application has significantly expanded at this stage of development of the food industry. It should be noted that the structure of consumption of solid fat-and-oil products has recently changed with a decrease in the proportion of consumed butter, margarines and spreads as edible products.
The reason for these changes is due to a more attentive attitude of the population towards health and the fulfillment of the recommendations of the health authorities to reduce the consumption of fats, in particular, saturated fats. Despite this fact, the consumption of solid fat-and-oil products on the whole continues to grow.
To a certain degree, this is due to the fact that the scope of margarines and spreads is not limited to direct consumption as a sandwich type product. Margarine products are widely used in public catering and in the HoReCa sector, as well as in the confectionery, bakery, canning and other food industries. The formulation of margarine can include both natural and modified vegetable oils, water, milk and its derivative products, as well as various food supplements.
Spreads, in comparison with margarines, have a more plastic consistency. Cream-vegetable and vegetablecream spreads are made of natural and modified vegetable oils, milk fat, cream and butter. Vegetable-fat spreads are obtained from natural or modified vegetable oils with or without the addition of food supplements and other ingredients that make it possible to obtain a stable emulsion [ 10 ].
Being homogeneous in appearance, emulsions consist of two liquids that are practically insoluble in each other. The complete or partial insolubility of the disperse phase in the dispersion medium is a necessary condition for the formation of an emulsion. In fact, all emulsions contain water as one of the phases.
The other phase is organic, non-polar, and it is conventionally called "oil. Food emulsions, which include margarines and spreads, are disperse systems formed by two mutually insoluble liquids oil and water , one of which is dispersed in the other in the form of tiny spherical droplets. The substance of drops is considered a disperse, discrete or internal phase. The substance that constitutes the surrounding liquid is called a dispersive, continuous or external medium.
As a rule, both the aqueous and the oil phase in emulsions are complex systems and are characterized by a multicomponent structure. Thus, the oil phase, or fatty base, in a margarine emulsion is a mixture of transesterified triacylglycerols different in origin and the melting point of hydrogenated fats soybean, sunflower, rapeseed, etc.
The aqueous phase, which determines organoleptic properties in margarines, includes flavoring agents, preservatives, citric or lactic acid to enhance microbiological resistance, thickeners, structure-forming agents especially for low-calorie margarines , antioxidants and dyes. There are two types of emulsions: oil-in-water or first-kind and water-in-oil or second-kind. In oilin-water emulsions, the oil phase is dispersed and the aqueous phase remains continuous. They are denoted as O-W.
For example, milk, cream and mayonnaise refer to oil-in-water emulsions. In water-in-oil emulsions, on the contrary, the aqueous phase is dispersed and the fat base remains continuous. They are denoted as W-O. Margarines are one of the examples of water-in-oil emulsions. Some conditions can lead to an inversion, when there is a transition of one type of emulsion to another.
For example, the prolonged mechanical treatment of an emulsion can lead to the coalescence of disperse phase droplets, and the liquid of the dispersion medium is crushed into droplets and dispersed in a newly formed dispersion medium by itself [ 9 ]. In addition, emulsions are classified according to the concentration of the disperse phase.
In dilute emulsions , the proportion of the disperse phase is up to 0. They belong to highly-dispersive emulsions, the droplets of the disperse phase in these emulsions have a spherical shape and their diameter is about nm. In concentrated emulsions , the amount of the disperse phase is from 0.
In emulsions with the specified concentration, the maximum content of spherical undeformed droplets is possible. They usually have deformed droplets, in which case the disperse phase therein can often turn into thin layers. In some cases, with a high degree of polydispersity in highly concentrated emulsions, the spherical shape of particles remains unchanged. Due to polydispersity, small droplets fill the spaces between large spherical particles.
It is possible to create mixed emulsions [ 10 ]. In food production, concentrated and highly concentrated emulsions that need an increase in the aggregative stability for a long time are as a rule obtained. This is achieved by adding special emulsifying agents which are various natural or synthetic compounds.
Most often, these are the substances that are soluble in one of the phases. Insoluble solids are also used in a finely disperse form. The first group of emulsifying substances is more extensive and is more often used in practice, surfactants hold a unique position therein [ 1 , 2 , 3 ]. The process of formation of an emulsion and its end-use properties depend on such factors as the surface tension of the phases and the interfacial tension of the heterogeneous system. Surface tension is the most important parameter that determines the stability of an emulsion.
The decrease in surface tension provides an increase in the stability of the system [ 6 ]. It is known that the decrease in interfacial tension is a consequence of a special surface phenomenon called adsorption. During adsorption, the emulsifier should easily transfer from the volume to the surface layer and, moreover, retain and concentrate in the surface layer.
Low molecular substances called diphilic or amphiphilic ones that consist of various functional parts usually have such properties. The irreversible character of adsorption causes the high stability of emulsions. The emulsifying ability of a surfactant is specified by the presence of hydrophobic and hydrophilic functional groups.
The hydrophilic part of an emulsifier molecule is usually hydroxyl, carboxyl, phosphatide, nitrogen, ester and other groups that have a significant dipole moment and are capable of forming hydrogen bonds with water molecules. The hydrophobic part in a surfactant molecule is a hydrocarbon radical which does not usually contain the atoms capable of forming hydrogen bonds and is insoluble in water.
Most often, these are the hydrocarbon radicals of fatty acids, usually palmitic C 16 : 0 , stearic C 18 : 0 or other saturated high molecular weight long-chain fatty acids. Medium-chain fatty acids such as lauric C 12 : 0 and myristic C 14 : 0 are undesirable in the composition of emulsifiers due to their low resistance to hydrolysis, which can lead to an unpleasant foreign taste of the finished product.
The presence of unsaturated fatty acids oleinic C 18 : 1 , linoleic C 18 : 2 and linolenic C 18 : 3 in an emulsifier is also undesirable since they are easily oxidized. Phospholipids phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylserine, dimethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidic acids, etc. Emulsifying properties are also characteristic of proteins the molecules of which include hydrophobic and hydrophilic fragments.
Obtaining an oil-in-water or water-in-oil emulsion depends on the type of emulsifier and a method for its addition. When obtaining an oil-in-water emulsion, the oil phase is introduced into the aqueous phase in small portions. The emulsifier is dissolved in the aqueous or in the oil phase before application. Waterin-oil emulsions are obtained by adding the aqueous phase to the oil solution of the emulsifier. This condition is only feasible when adding a small amount of the disperse phase, otherwise the phases can be reversed and the emulsion can be stratified [ 5 ].
The hydrophilic-lipophilic balance number HLB number of an emulsifier can be a measure of its affinity with oil or water. The term "hydrophiliclipophilic balance" was first proposed by Clayton and related to the ratio of the hydrophilic and hydrophobic lipophilic parts of a molecule of a diphilic surfactant.
The hydrophilic properties are determined by the interaction of the polar group of an emulsifier with water, and the lipophilic properties are determined by the interaction of a non-polar surfactant fragment with oil. Since the determination of the HLB number is a simpler method than the relatively accurate determination of the geometric and surfactant distribution factors in the miscible phases, the HLB number is currently an important factor in choosing an emulsifying system for a certain type of emulsion.
Table 1 shows the dependence of the type of emulsion being formed on the proportion of hydrophilic groups in an emulsifier molecule. Table 1. Dependence of the type of emulsion on the structure of an emulsifier An important factor to determine the type of emulsion being formed is the solubility or dispersibility of an emulsifier in the fat or aqueous phase. According to the Bancroft rule, fat-soluble, or dispersible in fat emulsifiers, the HLB values of which range from 2 to 6, form water-in-oil emulsions.
Water-soluble or water dispersible emulsifiers, having high HLB values — from The use of these emulsifiers makes it possible to form the mixtures of immiscible phases — oil and water — and keep them uniform. An important property that differs emulsifiers from the other classes of food supplements is surface activity that can be developed in different ways.
The most demanded functions of surfactants are: emulsification which allows us to obtain qualitative, stable emulsions and aerating and stabilizing whipped systems by interacting with other food substances, such as proteins and carbohydrates. In addition, surfactants make it possible to intensify the process of oil and fat crystallization being crystallization centers and controlling fat particle agglomeration. The emulsifying compositions that comprise phospholipids contribute to an increase in the thermal stability of fat-and-oil products for baking and frying, preventing splashing.
Having antioxidant properties, phospholipids also provide the high resistance of fat-and-oil products during storage. In addition to the main purpose — to stabilize an emulsion, emulsifiers help to improve the plasticity of margarines and spreads, and in the production of margarines for bakery they provide some specific properties of products, for example, they increase crumb porosity and the volume of the finished product.
The features of the food system being created and the technological tasks set determine the choice of a specific emulsifier. Preference should be given to an emulsifying supplement the technological functions of which will provide the best technological effect with the minimal risk of its application.
The domestic industry produces a wide range of mono- and diglycerides that differ from each other in a number of indicators, the main of which are the melting point and the iodine index that characterize an unsaturation degree. The technology of manufacturing emulsion fatand-oil products, including low-fat products, includes obtaining a highly-dispersive water-in-oil emulsion by emulsifying a mixture of vegetable oils and fats with dairy and other raw materials.
In this case, the product must have a uniform, plastic and dense consistency, a clear, pronounced flavor or the flavor of the used filler. The presence of free vegetable oil or water in a product worsens not only its consumer characteristics, but also reduces the microbiological resistance of a product during storage. The fat base of fat-and-oil emulsion products as well as spreads and margarines is a multicomponent mixture of natural or modified fats and oils with various physicochemical properties: the content of solid triglycerides, the melting point and hardness.
It is these factors that determine the structural and rheological characteristics of the finished product. In fact, it is not so much an emulsion as a dispersion of water droplets in a semi-solid fat-and-oil phase containing liquid oil and fat crystals [ 6 ]. The margarine emulsion production process requires considerable energy to reduce the size of disperse phase droplets in order to increase the interface between the two phases: aqueous and fat. A margarine emulsion is left in the liquid state for a short time to be treated using full-time margarine production lines only at the stages before entering the cooler votator or combinator where the fat base is simultaneously crystallized and emulsified.
A margarine emulsion does not require high resistance to coalescence since water droplets are fixed in a semisolid fat phase upon cooling.
The size of water phase droplets affects the organoleptic and microbiological indicators. The uniformity of droplet size distribution is also affected by the nature of the emulsifier used. Its role is to reduce the interfacial tension between the fat and aqueous phases, which usually leads to a decrease in the size of water droplets, as well as a more uniform distribution of droplets in size.
For this purpose, lipophilic emulsifiers are usually used: distilled monoglycerides containing highmolecular fatty acids C 16 : 0 —C 18 : 0 in combination with refined soya lecithin. Depending on the purpose, margarines are divided into solid, soft and liquid ones.
Soft margarines are mainly used in home cooking and in public catering. Liquid ones — for baking, in home cooking, for making bakery and confectionery products, as well as for frying in fast food stores.
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Emulsifiers > for emulsion polymerisation processes
Emulsifiers have various effects on the production process of food and improve its quality. They are used in various types of food. Functions of emulsifiers are listed below. Bread and sweet rolls sold at super-markets and convenience stores are usually mass-produced.
Navigate through our chemicals and applications world and find the solution which fits best to your needs. All grades are supplied as liquid solutions. They are fatty alcohol ethoxylates providing stabilization properties for colloidal systems. They are fatty alcohol sulphates, fatty alcohol ether sulphates, fatty alcohol ether phosphates and sulfosuccinates.
More specifically, micro-HIPEs are thermodynamically stable, optically clear emulsions with droplet sizes in the range of around 1— nm that form spontaneously with little energy input but are rare. By merely adjusting the length of the oligolysine graft from relatively long to medium to short, we can form either a micro-, mini- or macro-HIPE, respectively. These emulsions can then be solidified into porous polymers, polyHIPEs, simply by increasing the temperature by exploiting the copolymer thermo-responsiveness and then removing the solvents. The article was received on 10 Feb , accepted on 12 Mar and first published on 13 Mar If you are not the author of this article and you wish to reproduce material from it in a third party non-RSC publication you must formally request permission using Copyright Clearance Center. Go to our Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page for details. Authors contributing to RSC publications journal articles, books or book chapters do not need to formally request permission to reproduce material contained in this article provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.
Alpha-gel emulsifier , Cake gel , Soft cakes , Stability , Volume. Ovalett is a low-dosage alpha-gel emulsifier, adapted for baking of products that use baking powder. Aroplus is a range of particularly tolerant alpha-gel emulsifiers for the production of soft cakes using low-protein flour.
The de-emulsification of a Nigerian crude oil emulsion has been investigated using locally formulated base and acid catalyzed phenol formaldehyde resins with varied formaldehyde to phenol molar ratios. The bottle test method was used for the screening process and the best de-emulsifier was chosen based on the largest volume of water removed from the crude oil emulsion. A factorial design was done to determine the best combination of de-emulsification conditions for optimal performance. The results were optimized and analyzed using software called Minitab 16 utilizing pareto chart, normal effects, main effects and interactions plots. Increasing temperature and concentrations were found to enhance de-emulsification performance with all the resole and novolak de-emulsifiers. But one of her oil fields-Obagi oil field in Rivers, Port Harcourt is having emulsion problem. This problem makes crude oil produced from this region to have low market value because it is difficult to meet international market specifications. Water-in-oil emulsions are common occurrences during crude oil production. They are formed when oil and water are co-produced with sufficient agitation or injected water in reservoir, at well bore, in pipelines during flow of the mixture from the reservoir to the manifold and separators and at surface facilities Al-Sahhaf et al. Emulsion stability ranges from a few minutes to years depending on the nature of the crude oil mixtures Bhardwaj and Hartland,
Emulsion stability basics
Emulsifiers are substances that enable the formation of emulsions and prevent the reaggregation of molecules. An emulsion is a colloidal system consisting of at least two immiscible liquids, where one phase is dispersed in the other in the form of droplets. The most common emulsifiers are surfactants. The emulsifier molecules adsorb at the phase boundary , reducing the interfacial tension. After reducing the tension, a spontaneous emulsification process takes place under the influence of the movement of particles. The resulting stable system is called an emulsion. Emulsifiers are used in almost all branches of industry. Among others, they are used in the production of agrochemicals, detergents, paints, varnishes, food products, packaging, cosmetics; cleaning and industrial washing; in the construction, paper, metallurgy, pharmaceutical, fuel and textile industries.
Emulsifiers Balance Product Development
Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Food Emulsifiers and Their Applications. Gerard L. Hasenhuettl , Richard W Hartel. Emulsifiers have traditionally been described as ingredients that assist in formation and stabilization of emulsions. The definition, however, may be expanded to include mixing of mutually insoluble phases. Foams gas in liquid or solid and dispersions solids in liquids or other solids may be stabilized by emulsifiers.
Emulsion: The emulsifier-paraffin mass may, on the other hand, be allowed to cool, whereupon a pasty or solid mass results. It finds use in emulsify mixer of paraffin oil and amino silicone oils to get stable milky emulsion.
Imagine a world without emulsions, a global marketplace where food formulators suddenly do not have access to ingredients whose emulsification capabilities play such a critical role in product development. Without emulsifiers, stabilization would break down.
Increasing health awareness among consumers in Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam and Malaysia among others is expected to further improve the food emulsifier market in the region. Source from Guangzhou Cardlo Biotechnology Co. Prior to the addition of an emulsifier like mono- and diglycerides in your peanut butter, you would have had to continuously mix the oil and solid phase together to prevent separation. A higher concentration is used in gel-like products.
Emulsifier is an organic compound that encompasses in the same molecule two dissimilar structural groups e. It is the ingredient which binds the water and oil in a cream or lotion together permanently. The composition, solubility properties, location and relative sizes of these dissimilar groups in relation to the overall molecular configuration determine the surface activity of a compound.