Letsitiny from the Greek — yolk — general term for the designation of fatty substances in the cloths of animals and plants, the egg yolks, which consist of orthophosphoric acid, choline, fatty acids, glycerin, glycolipids, fats and phospholipids. Bakery and confectionary products are products that are in demand all categories of consumers, so producers need to improve the quality indicators;. Release is accomplished on TU U We produce lecithin from the sunflower, advantages of which are: GMO free; it is produced from the ecologically clean raw material; it is not allergen, and use in the following regions is found:.
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- New leaders in the market of lecithins/phosphatide concentrates
- US3883670A - Pourable cream concentrate - Google Patents
- Phosphatide concentrate
- Integrated Soybean Biorefinery
- Rape phosphatide concentrate in the technologies of surfactants production by the Actinobacteria
- WO2004014144A1 - Process for removing sugar and/or oil from lecithin - Google Patents
New leaders in the market of lecithins/phosphatide concentratesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Here's How Pure, Clean Cannabis Extraction Works
The concept of biorefinery is analogous to that of petroleum refineries, but it uses renewable raw materials. However, the main objective of the biorefinery is to transform renewable agricultural materials into numerous and different commercially applicable products, allowing a viable economic competitiveness to traditional petrochemical refineries.
In this chapter, we present a proposal for a biorefinery integrated from soybean as raw material, demonstrating its potential in this sector.
In addition, special focus was given to the high value-added products present in the soybean oil deodorizer distillate SODD , such as tocopherol, fatty acids, and squalene, which can be applied in the food, pharmacy, and cosmetic industries. In conclusion, the use of soybean raw material as a biomass in a biorefinery presents numerous environmental and economic advantages as high value-added products are formed.
It is important to highlight that in this highly evolved integrated biorefinery model, the additional benefits of operational and administrative synergies will emerge over time.
Due to the environmental concerns and the likely depletion of fossil fuel oil, the scientific community has been increasingly striving to seek raw materials from renewable sources to enable sustainable growth, thereby reducing dependence on oil. In this perspective, the concept of biorefinery is perfectly connected in this scenario, since its main objective is to transform renewable agricultural materials into numerous and different commercially applicable products, allowing a viable economic competitiveness to traditional petrochemical refineries [ 1 , 2 ].
Biorefinery applications integrate several important areas of research, such as product and process engineering, biofuel generation, biotechnology, agronomy, agroecology, and environmental impact assessment, among others [ 3 ]. Soybean Glycine L. Brazil is the country with the greatest potential for expansion of the cultivated area, being the largest producer and exporter of soybeans and their derivatives worldwide.
From the soybean processing, bran that is rich in protein is mainly used in animal feed, and oil, in addition to its application for the production of biodiesel, is also used for human consumption and product development chemicals, food, and cosmetics.
Among these large groups of biomolecules are important macro- and micronutrients and biologically active components such as isoflavones, tocopherols, saponins, phytosterols, as well as essential fatty acids, especially linoleic acid and linolenic acid [ 7 ]. These non-saponifiable materials are extracted from the crude oil in the last purification step and in this fraction contain some high value-added products such as vitamin E tocopherols and terpenes, in particular squalene [ 8 ].
In this context, this chapter aims to present and discuss the application of soybean as a raw material for biorefinery, with a special focus on the exploitation of high value-added products present in the soybean oil deodorizer distillate SODD , such as tocopherol, fatty acids, sterols, and squalene. In turn, the International Energy Agency defines that biorefining is the sustainable synergistic processing of biomass in different ingredients applied to food and tradable feeds, chemicals, materials, and energy in the form of fuels and heat.
The industrial unit integrates equipment and processes of biomass conversion in the production of fuels, electricity, heat, and refined products. It is worth noting that the concept of biorefinery has been explored in recent years by numerous researches, since it has become the best option to transform different biomass systems into products that can be applied in different industrial sectors [ 9 , 10 , 11 ]. Different studies conceptualize biorefinery as a form analogous to petroleum refineries, which use fossil feedstocks to generate fuels and chemicals.
According to Maity [ 13 ] just as petroleum refineries can obtain intermediary products for the generation of other products, biorefineries, regardless of the type of raw material used, also generate intermediate products to obtain numerous products. According to the authors, the main similarity is related to the quantity of intermediate products that both generate. However, the nature of the raw material is considered as the main difference which could significantly differentiate the concept of both, since the raw material used in refineries is a homogeneous material, while biomass, applied to the biorefineries, is an extremely complex and heterogeneous matrix.
Biorefinery systems have been considered as sustainable systems due primarily to the renewability of the biomass used in this process [ 15 ]. However, there are some controversies regarding the sustainability of some types of biorefinery systems, since sustainability is not based exclusively on renewability or the environmental dimension, and therefore other economic issues must also be taken into account [ 15 ].
Recent studies also highlight the importance of conceptual and methodological developments for sustainable biorefineries. According to Azapagic [ 16 ], integrated biorefineries use various biofeedstocks to produce biofuels, energy electricity and heat , and chemicals.
In order to maintain sustainability, the main factor for the development of integrated biorefineries is the production of biofuels for transportation, with the coproducts helping to maximize the value of raw materials.
Based on this context, soy has enormous potential as a raw material for a biorefinery, proving to be ideal for the process. For example, from the transesterification reaction, the virgin oil extract can be used to produce biodiesel, while the residual soybean straw can be used to produce different products, such as biomaterials, biofuels, and biochemical.
Thus, soybean refining is composed of a set of processes that aim to transform crude oil into edible oil. The refining process aims to improve the appearance, odor, and flavor of the oil, which occurs with the removal of certain components of the crude oil.
There are two types of refining, the chemical and the physical, and these definitions are related to the process for the removal of the fatty acids in the oil, which are considered as unwanted components. In the chemical refining, saponification of the acids occurs through an alkaline solution, which dilutes the soaps generated in water for the later removal of the process by separators.
In turn, the physical refining is characterized as a process that separates the acids using the difference of their volatility, in relation to the triglyceride present in the oil. The main steps involved in the refining process are degumming hydration , neutralization deacidification , bleaching clarification , and deodorization [ 17 ]. Figure 1 shows a simplified scheme for the extraction and refining of soybean oil.
The removal of traces of components responsible for undesirable odors and flavors occurs in the stage called deodorization. The deodorization temperature is variable because it directly affects the vapor pressure of the volatile constituents to be removed and thus directly affects the removal rate of these components [ 18 ]. It should be noted that the SODD contains products of high value-added that have uses in various sectors of the food, pharmaceutical, and cosmetic industries, for example.
In addition, to ensure adequate sustainability, the appropriate location of industrial plants is particularly important to contribute to economic, social, and sustainable objectives, so it should not be done superficially [ 21 ].
Table 1 presents some works that use, discuss, or propose different raw materials for the development of a sustainable biorefinery. Some conversion technologies are consolidated at a commercial scale, but others are still under development or study [ 22 ]. Publications that use, discuss, or propose different raw materials for the development of a biorefinery. As previously discussed, SODD is a by-product of the soybean oil refining process, being considered as a complex mixture of compounds such as free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sterols, such as tocopherols, a class of large natural antioxidants with vitamin E activity [ 31 ].
For example, SODD has been studied as a great alternative to marine animals as natural source of squalene from shark and as a raw material for the production of fatty acids, tocopherols, and phytosterols [ 32 ]. In this section we present the main compounds in SODD with the objective of showing the potential of soybean for the development of an integrated biorefinery. In turn, a vitamin is defined as an organic compound that is essential for exerting different normal physiological functions of the organism, being necessary in small quantities [ 33 ].
Considering the production of refined oil in , according to the Brazilian Association of Vegetable Oil Industries [ 35 ], 7. Other components of great interest in SODD are fatty acids. Squalene is an important bioactive compound concentrated in intermediate by-products and waste streams during the refinement of soybean oil [ 39 ]. Squalene is defined as a natural dehydrotriterpenic hydrocarbon formed by six double bonds C 30 H 50 and diffused in the animal and plant kingdom [ 40 ].
Squalene is widely applied in the preparation of cosmetics as a natural moisturizer and in cholesterol biosynthesis [ 32 , 41 ] as well as used for the development of stable emulsions for vaccine adjuvants [ 42 , 43 ], mainly due to their safety recognized by the World Health Organization [ 44 ].
For commercial purposes, it is mainly obtained from liver oil from some deep-sea sharks. SODD and sunflower oil deodorization distillate are by-products most appreciated for the high quality of squalene [ 45 ]. An Indian patent also describes the use of SODD for obtaining high-purity squalene for application in cosmetics and medicaments, for example [ 48 ]. The usage of oil for the fuel synthesis is based on the transformation of triglycerides in esters.
The most common way to synthesize those substances is by the transesterification of the refined oil. Although the regular transesterification process provides high conversion rates and have a relatively operational simplicity, some problems comes along, such as 1 low energetic and production efficiency; 2 need to adjust the raw material; 3 the use of high toxicity intermediate products; 4 generation of a significant by-product volume glycerol with a level of contamination that requires high investments to its use or discharge; 5 the use of methanol which, besides toxic, needs fossil fuels, as raw material, to be produced in the form of energy; 6 difficulty in recycling the catalyst; 7 need to remove the glycerol from biodiesel; and 8 high environmental impact associated.
The sector must deal with those barriers and other operational issues, e. Therefore, governments are obliged to subsidize the biofuel production, since they are pressured to meet oil demand provided by law. In this regard, the biorefinery concept fits perfectly, because in addition to using residual raw materials, it manages to generate value-added products, which help the lucrative process. However, waste oils demand different technologies than the usual ones, and in this case, one of the solutions for technically and economically viable biodiesel production is the use of processes that use solvents under supercritical and subcritical conditions.
Thus, one of the steps of a biorefinery would be the production of esters and glycerin with low level of contaminants. The limitations have encouraged many studies to synthesize green fuels that overcome the shortcomings of their predecessors. These have been called second-generation biofuels [ 49 ].
Another factor is the generation of glycerin as a by-product. This presents an increase in the costs of the process, as it is not easily treated for use as raw material and so cannot be discarded.
The synthesis of propylene from glycerin does not demand as high a purity as is required for the cosmetics area and has a wide market [ 50 ].
Thus, the evaluation of a methodology that uses residual sources and generates esters and glycerin without catalysts presents a high socioeconomic potential. The objective is the esterification of residual raw materials in super- and subcritical environments to obtain esters and glycerin for the synthesis of propene and polymers.
The second integrated process is the extraction of high value-added waste products from the refining of vegetable oils. Using SODD, which has significant amounts of free fatty acids potential source to produce esters , tocopherols widely used in the cosmetics industry , and sterols used in the formulation of vitamin supplements in the cosmetics industry , biorefinery is a great generator of high value-added products.
A process which separates the products efficiently and with high purity will provide raw material for the synthesis of esters and quality raw material for the cosmetic and medicinal sectors.
The separation with supercritical fluid CO 2 allows to obtain products without the contamination of solvents, thus allowing a commercialization of the same with greater purity. The fatty acids obtained are used for the synthesis of esters in a subcritical environment and contemplate the third part of the biorefinery.
This concept arose from the need of sources with high triglyceride content, since these substances and alcohols are not miscible, and under the conditions evaluated, the whole reaction medium would be in a single phase, favoring the reaction. However, fatty acid-rich materials, such as deodorization distillates and the residual frying oils, are soluble in alcohols; thus, milder conditions were enough for the synthesis of esters [ 51 , 52 , 53 ].
When ethanol was used, the conversion reduced by The work further compared the results with the synthesis using acid catalysts and concluded that catalyst with less synthesis is as efficient as acid to produce esters through acid sources.
In addition, if the fuel market is not attractive, the esters can be burned as fuel because of the calorific value of the esters. They are also applied as drilling fluid, for example, if it undergoes treatments that comply with the legislation specific to such use. This topic presents a short overview of the biorefinery concept to a soybean crushing and refining facility and presents some applications for most of the residues produced during the process.
The energetic requirements and the number of residues generated during soy protein concentrate SPC and soy protein isolate SPI processes were obtained by simulations. This study reinforced the idea to direct the straw and hulls to fulfill the energetic demand of the crushing, refining, and biodiesel production facilities and to provide electricity to the rest of the process. The main residues produced by the refining process are gums, soap stock, spent bleaching earth SBE , and deodorizer distillate product.
Lecithin can be obtained from gum residues. Biodiesel can be produced from soap stock and spent bleaching earth. Concentrated tocopherols are obtained from deodorizer distillate, and the electrical energy is produced from soybean molasses generated during the concentration of proteins from soybean meal.
Figure 2 illustrates the major steps of a soybean crushing and refining facility, as well as the main products and the residues generated. After the hull and straw removal, the soybean flakes are sent to the soybean oil extraction.
In this step, the most common method used to extract is the direct solvent extraction with hexane as solvent. The next main step is the chemical refining of the soybean oil which aims to remove the unwanted oil components with minimal effect on triacylglycerols and minimal loss of the desirable components.
The residues produced along the soybean refining process have commercial value or can be used as a source of energy for the plant itself. One of these residues is the straw. Every year around million tons of soybeans and an equivalent amount of straw are produced globally [ 55 ].
The straw is composed of stem, leaf, and pod husk, varying its global composition. Another residue is the hull, which is part of the seed that has the highest carbohydrate concentration. Another kind of residue present in the soybean crude oil is the gum. The process to remove it is called degumming process.
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US3883670A - Pourable cream concentrate - Google Patents
Until recently fats and oils have been in surplus, and considered a relatively low value byproduct. Only recently have energy uses of fats and oils begun to be economically viable. Food value of fats and oils is still far above the energy value of fats and oils. Industrial and technical value of fats and oils is still above the energy value of fats and oils. Animal feeds value of fats and oils tends to remain below the energy value of fats and oils. With development of new technology oils and fats industry has undergone a number of changes and challenges that have prompted the development of new technologies, and processing techniques. Oils and fats constitute one of the major classes of food products.
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Ukrainian Food Journal. Koretska M. Prystai O. Double blind peer review. Abstract Full Text. Due to the fact that the production of microbial surfactants is limited by the low yield of end products and high cost of processes, the actual task is to optimize and reduce the cost of the technology of biosurfactants synthesis. One of the solutions of this problem is to use the industrial wastes, including rape phosphatide concentrate PC.
Integrated Soybean Biorefinery
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The phospholipids are a mixture of phosphatidyl choline, phosphatidyl ethanol amine, N-acetyl phosphatidyl ethanol amine, and other phosphatides, the concentrates perferably containing a mixture of wght. The phospholipid concentrates are particularly suitable as auxiliary agents in the production and application of spray mixtures containing plant protectants. This application is a continuation-in-part of application Ser. The object of the invention is a phospholipid concentrate suitable for use as an auxiliary agent in the production and application of plant protectant spray mixture. Phospholipids, natural or synthetic, are known, and consist of component parts of commercially available lecithins. Phospholipids are generally plastic, difficult to work with masses which are soluble in organic solvents, e. Chemically they include phosphatidyl choline, hydrogenated phosphatidyl cholines, phosphatidyl inositol, phosphatidyl serine, phosphatidic acid, phosphatidyl glycerol, or a mixture of several such products, e. The Japanese patent publication J 5 describes an oil in polyvalent alcohol emulsion compound which contains lecithin, a polyvalent alcohol, and a non-ionogenic surface-specific agent. Involved are transparent or opaque gels or highly viscous liquids, which can be employed for various purposes. It has been shown that these gels, together with plant protectants, cannot without difficulty be diluted to form spray mixtures.
Rape phosphatide concentrate in the technologies of surfactants production by the Actinobacteria
End products produced at the plant today are crude sunflower, soybean and rapeseed oils for human nutrition as well as sunflower, soybean and rapeseed meal and husk used in pellets for animals and, finally, they manufacture phosphatide concentrate from sunflowers, soybeans and rapeseeds used in the manufacture of margarine and in bakery, confectionery and chocolate goods or, in other instances, for cattle feed. At the same time, high productivity rates and the high quality of the raw materials are preserved in end products. The plant is in operation around the clock, seven days a week. The cleaner has two parallel operating screen boxes of laminated wood with a total of eight screen layers each consisting of three screens dimensioned x mm. The total screen area is 24 m 2. The cleaner was delivered with two sets of screens, totalling 48 screens, including additional screens for soybeans and other products. A challenge in reaching maximum capacity for the Omega is the size of the sunflower seeds.
WO2004014144A1 - Process for removing sugar and/or oil from lecithin - Google Patents
Primary Examiner-Raymond N. Jones Assistant ExaminerR. Yoncoskie Attorney, Agent, or Firm-Lever Brothers Company  ABSTRACT The specification describes a pourable cream concentrate containing fat, a-monoglycerides, egg yolk, sugar and polyalcohols; this cream concentrate remains microbiologically stable for about 6 weeks when stored at ambient temperature. Optimally vegetable phosphatides, egg white and a stabiliser can be present in the cream concentrate of the invention. The cream concentrate can be diluted, e. The invention particularly relates to a cream concentrate which is pourable for at least several weeks, eg 6 weeks. C, and from which preferably by dilution a whippable filled cream can be prepared, and to a pro cess for preparing such a concentrate. The cream whip of the invention has a specific volume of more than 2, especially 2. The creams disclosed in these old references are as regards one or more ofthe properties such as pourability, microbiological stability at ambient temperature, specific volume after whipping and stand-up" of the whip, inferior to the products of the instant invention. In Irish Patent Application No.
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Field of the Invention This invention relates to improved methods for refining vegetable oils and byproducts thereof. More particularly, this invention relates to improved processes for producing vegetable oils having reduced content of impurities such as free fatty acids and phosphatides.
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