Sawdust is a tiny piece of wood that fall as powder from wood as it is cut by a saw . In other words, sawdust is basically a waste of small particles available in saw-milling industries, pulp plant and paper industries as well as wood processing industries particularly, in the southern part of Nigeria in a quite large volume in form of heaps and mostly burnt off resulting in the environmental pollution . Sawdust is generally considered as a timber-industrial waste that pollutes the environment  but can become a valuable commodity either as a raw material in manufacturing industries for wood boards, light construction materials such as shelves, notice boards, wall and roof sheeting for mobile houses, as an insulator in the refrigerating system and cold conservation of in Energy industries as fuel burned directly or indirectly to produce wood gas, briquette, pellet, etc. Some aspects of the technologies used for the mentioned above shall form part of the discussions in this paper.
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Sawdust is a tiny piece of wood that fall as powder from wood as it is cut by a saw . In other words, sawdust is basically a waste of small particles available in saw-milling industries, pulp plant and paper industries as well as wood processing industries particularly, in the southern part of Nigeria in a quite large volume in form of heaps and mostly burnt off resulting in the environmental pollution .
Sawdust is generally considered as a timber-industrial waste that pollutes the environment  but can become a valuable commodity either as a raw material in manufacturing industries for wood boards, light construction materials such as shelves, notice boards, wall and roof sheeting for mobile houses, as an insulator in the refrigerating system and cold conservation of in Energy industries as fuel burned directly or indirectly to produce wood gas, briquette, pellet, etc.
Some aspects of the technologies used for the mentioned above shall form part of the discussions in this paper. Sawdust possesses characteristics similar to wood but due to the fact that it is in particles, some structural properties have been altered. It can however recover this so that it can be used again as wood. Consequently, in utilizing sawdust as a source of energy, its heating value can be compared with that of other fuels.
It has a very low thermal conductivity and hence used as insulating material so as to reduce heat losses through conductor. High pressure and temperature are essential to agglomerate to make a very dense briquette without a binder. The technological development of sawdust proves its positive use, for instance, it is a requirement for improvement in various forms in different kinds of materials, chemicals such as methanol  ; as a fuel for instance, it can be burnt directly to obtain heat in three distinct ways  :.
Most researchers agreed that all readily recovered waste being generated at present could be absorbed by the industry either for energy supply or for additional raw material for processing chipboards and fine board . Therefore all prime timber is likely to find a ready market for the foreseeable future. For instance, a number of pulp plants in the United States already use their processed wastes to produce other chemicals and beverages quality alcohol. The increasing costs, crisis and depletion of energy from convectional sources over past few years have reawakened interest in the development of alternative sources of energy.
Apart from the fact that most of these conventional energy sources are non-renewable, world energy planners have realized that these sources alone would be inadequate to meet the increasing need of the world both now and the future. This led to greater attention being paid to the development of wood gas from sawdust which otherwise would be wasted. The technological development of sawdust brought about briquettes which are good alternatives for using wood as fuel .
The specific energy content of the wood waste and charcoal are 16, Sawdust is beneficial also as insulating materials in the refrigerating system and in cold conservation. Application of modern technology in the areas of pulp and paper making, particle board, water board, oriented strand board plywood has resulted in several benefits such as availability of high quality product for making materials such as shelves, wall and roof sheathings, light construction materials and employment opportunities for the populace to mention a few.
Several structural wood panels such as mentioned above shall be the focus of this paper under the manufacturing industry. Sawdust is a useful factor in agricultural industry in making fertilizer called sawdust compost as well as food in chicken brooders. Several million tons of sawdust and other wood residues are produced annually in the Southwest Nigeria. While most of this is burned, an increasing amount is being used for mulches, growers of small fruit, and nurserymen.
It is also find an increasing use as litter in barns and feed lots, and as a soil conditioner in general agriculture. Usage has been largely on a trial and error basis, usually with good results. Like other highly carbonaceous organic matter, however, sawdust under certain conditions can cause a deficiency of available nitrogen in soils and thus retard plant growth. Certain woods or bark also contain tannins and other extractives that may have more or less toxic influence on plants and soil microorganisms.
To obtain information and fundamental knowledge on these and other problems arising in connection with agricultural uses of wood wastes. It is well known that mulching can increase crop yields, but it is essential that mulches be low-cost, readily available materials.
In addition, it is desirable that materials used should not require costly applications of nitrogenous fertilizers during the process of decomposition. Most of our soils are greatly in need of organic matter because the usual crop rotations seldom maintain soil humus at high level as desirable. Wood residues should be utilized for humus maintenance wherever it is economically feasible to do so. Although the emphasis is on sawdust, this material reacts much as do chips, shavings, and bark, except that decomposition is more rapid in the more finely divided material.
Sawdust mulches: Improve structure and aeration of heavy soils. Increase water absorption and penetration. Conserve moisture through weed control and reduced evaporation. Technological advancement is an important desirable and necessary ingredient of economic and social growth but the environmental consequences can be unpleasant.
For example burning sawdust in an open space causes atmospheric pollution landing leading to the problem of acidic rain and the emission of carbon iv oxide which is of concern as greenhouse gas . Sawdust seriously affects the soil and water, being a very dangerous threat to the environment. It has three major negative effects on the soil, these include: reduction of the hydrogen content of the soil when used as mulch and reduces soil phosphorous when incorporated.
Soil acidity increases and therefore unsuitable for crop germination unless it is composted not good to be used as a fertilizer. Sawdust pollutes the soil with phenol compound. All together these effects reduce the soil productivity . Sawdust reuse is promoted by waste legislation. There is no specific legislation regarding sawdust but there is legislation for wastes in general.
As a by-product of timber industry, sawdust is considered by the environmental authorities as a recyclable waste. Sawdust and other biomass materials such as palm kernel shell, rice bran, alfalfa straw, olive pits, wheat straw, rice husks, walnut shells, sunflower straw, soybean stalks. Maize cabs, maize stalk etc. There are various types of binding agents; these include starch, tar, pitch, thermoplastic resin. These pellets burn at higher temperatures than untreated wood; resulting in more complete burning and less ash residual .
Subsequently, the mixtures of sawdust, biomass materials and the binding agents are then molded into small block cubes and cured by drying out the water content in a drying oven. These cubes are called the briquettes which can then be burned in a special stove for cooking.
A screw press was used for destruction of the cell walls to generate heat and a high pressure which is the prerequisite for briquetting of sawdust consequent of the force needed to overcome the natural springiness of these materials i. The process whereby there is a considerable reduction in the volume of the loose sawdust and its aggregates by the application of compressive stress and thereafter leading to its agglomeration so that the product remains in the compressed state is referred to as densification .
If the material is compacted with low to moderate pressure 0. As the pressure is increased there will be a stage when the cellulose cell wall of the constituent will collapse . After the densification the material remains as solid until it serves its function well as a fuel. The densification also reduce the moisture content, increase the bulk density, increase the calorific value of the fuel and as well as improving the handling and transporting characteristics.
The handling characteristics depend on the following properties:. Gasification of sawdust is the process by which sawdust is burnt with limited supply of air or oxygen.
Sawdust gas is composed of carbon ii oxide, carbon iv oxide, hydrogen and methane. The liquid and the gas are combustible and are potential fuel or fuel feedstock except carbon iv oxide. The typical composition from gasification in air, omitting water vapour is as shown in the Table 1 below.
There are some variations, in general the composition of the gas largely independent of the composition of the feedstock because the end product is a mixture of simple gases. In some cases, if there is significant sulphur content in the feedstock hydrogen sulphide may be generated. This can be easily removed by passing the gas through water. Furthermore, if the air supply is replaced by pure oxygen as it is in the proxy process, the nitrogen content is eliminated and the energy density can be as high.
Table 1. Typical composition from gasification of sawdust in air. Another route to produce the higher BTU gas is by hydro gasification where hydrogen is added to react with the carbon ii oxide to give hydrocarbons. The fact that sawdust consists of predominantly carbohydrates cellulose and hemicellulose , the technology of hydrogenation and carbon ii oxide is readily adaptable to converting sawdust to oil.
The conversion of cellulose to liquid material requires high pressure hydrogenation and to a bitumen-like material, this requires treatment with caustic at elevated temperatures and pressures.
Water is needed because it supplies the hydrogen for the reaction and also for the hydrolysis of the high- molecular weight carbohydrate present. It also acts as a solvent and vehicle for the reaction.
It decreases the extent of polymerization of some of the highly reactive water soluble intermediates. The separation of the oil and water phases during the product recovery step is sometimes encountered by emulsions. The extraction can be done using acetone or benzene depending on the temperature at which the reaction occurs. The solvent can then be separated by a rotary evaporated heater in a hot water bath.
All wood-based structural panels are composite materials. There are a lot of wood panels that can be made from sawdust, these include: Particle board, Oriented strand board, water board, plywood, etc. Wood dust in the form of flakes, shavings, chips fibres mixed with resin and other binding agents. This mixture is laid down in a mat which is hot-pressed to increase the density of the mat and to cure the adhesive. The sawdust particles may be oriented to some degree to provide some directionally of strength properties along and across the panels.
Particles may be laid down in orthogonal layers similar to plywood veneer. Different types of particles may be used in the same panel to improve surface properties and create a more layered particle product . In order to overcome the problem associated with spring back and stabilization of the material hot pressing of the sawdust can be carried out for consolidating the particle board to the required thickness and density.
It has a direct effect on the product quality and the production efficiency. The function of hot-pressing is to consolidate the material to a desirable panel density and thickness. Modern plants use single-opening or continuous presses for adhesive and furnish to be bonded together to overcome the spring back and heat stabilize the panel for the targeted thickness and density .
Production of better panel thickness, controlled density profiles and lower losses in sanding and trimming are assured than for multi opening presses . In the designing of unit, efforts were made to use simple manufacturing and engineering techniques to produce units which will serve as a model and which is relatively cheap and easily available.
The dimension of the reactor unit is based on a portable unit that will compose 2 kg of sawdust biomass at each feeding rate. The specific value of heat content cannot be ascertained. But assertion can be made during the oxygen gasification of wood.
The volume of the producer gas that can be produced during oxygen gasification of sawdust is the addition of the two principal constituents: Carbon ii oxide CO and hydrogen H 2 by percentage of the total volume of gas produced per feeding rate of 2 kg of sawdust.
A specific value cannot be ascertained due to the following conditions:. The height and the circumference of the reactor can be calculated using the following assumption:. The diameter to be 0.
Oriented strand board OSB is a type of engineered wood similar to particle board , formed by adding adhesives and then compressing layers of wood strands flakes in specific orientations. It was invented by Armin Elmendorf in California in OSB is a material with favorable mechanical properties that make it particularly suitable for load-bearing applications in construction. For exterior wall applications, panels are available with a radiant-barrier layer pre-laminated to one side; this eases installation and increases energy performance of the building envelope. OSB also sees some use in furniture production. The adhesive resins types used include: urea-formaldehyde OSB type 1, non-structural, non-waterproof ; isocyanate based glue or PMDI poly- methylene diphenyl diisocyanate based in inner regions with melamine - urea-formaldehyde or phenol formaldehyde resin glues at surface OSB type 2, structural, water resistant on face ; phenol formaldehyde resin throughout OSB types 3 and 4, structural, for use in damp and outside environments.
OSB board VS MDF board
Plywood is made by glueing together thin sheets of wood veneer. The thickness of an individual sheet is 0. The sheets are composed so that the directions of the grain of the superimposed sheets are usually perpendicular to each other. In birch plywood board, there is usually an odd number of sheers at least three , so the direction of grain of the surface sheets is always the same. In conifer plywood sheets, the number may also be even.
Classifying wood for import and export
E-mail: yueshanpanel hotmail. Furniture board; , cut to size. They are all engineered woods that used in construction projects. Contractors and carpenters are able to guide you in deciding.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Veneer Tech Plant Tour
Lightweight framed construction is the most common construction system in Australia. The two most commonly used framing materials — steel and timber — can contribute to the comfort, appeal and environmental performance of your home. Although lightweight framed construction can be used for floors, walls and roofs, the focus of this article is on wall systems. Timber from sustainable sources provides a renewable building material that takes in carbon from the atmosphere while growing and stores it for the life of the building. Its greatest enemy is the termite, although rot and mould from condensation is becoming an increasingly critical threat as we seal our homes and increase insulation levels. Steel-framed construction began to be adopted in the s and continues to gain popularity. Its many advantages include being durable, stable and termite-proof.
Structural Insulated Panels (SIPs)
We all want to live happier, healthier lives and using wood from sustainable sources helps both ourselves and the environment to do so. Luckily, there have also been many breakthroughs in interior design to help us with greener living. One such breakthrough is sustainable plywood.
Plywood is an assemblage of wood veneers bonded together to produce a flat sheet. While it can be tailored to suit an extensive range of applications, the normal product consists of at least 3 plies, with the grain in the alternate plies running at right angles. There are four groupings of plywood products, with each group designed for specific applications:. Increased stability Plywood offers all the inherent advantages of the parent wood plus enhanced properties in its laminated structure. High impact resistance Being a wood based material, plywood has the ability to accommodate the occasional short-term overload; up to twice the design load. This is useful where seismic activity or cyclonic winds can occur. This property is also effective when used as construction flooring or as concrete formwork. Plywood's laminated structure distributes loads from impact over a larger area on the opposite face, which effectively reduces the tensile stress. Surface dimensional stability The cross laminated construction of plywood ensures that plywood sheets remain relatively stable under changes of temperature and moisture. This is especially important in flooring and formwork construction where moisture exposure is very likely. High strength to weight ratio With high strength and stiffness to weight ratios, plywood is very cost effective to use in structural applications such as flooring, shearwalls, formwork and webbed beams.
Wooden Boards: Differences Between MDF, MDP, Plywood, and OSB
For some years now, wood has received an increasing amount of attention in the construction industry. However, it is the versatility of wood that serves as the primary impetus for its widespread use. In the case of the manufacture of furniture, wall coverings, ceilings, and even floors, the use of boards is an economical and functional way of incorporating wood into buildings. There are several options for wooden boards on the market, and each uses a different manufacturing process involving fibers, particles, fragments, or sheets, resulting in specific uses. Next, we select the most commonly used wooden boards, including their characteristics and main uses:. Because the fibers are randomly oriented, the machine can cut them in any direction, delivering a smooth surface to the touch. But they can also be used elsewhere, such as in wall and door claddings. Being compressed under higher pressure, these boards are more resistant, support more weight, and can cover larger extensions. It can be finished with paints and varnishes, but they rarely stick, since the surface is not smooth or uniform. The main advantage of this agglomerate is its low cost.
As demand for wood products increases globally, the EU wood panel industry is thriving; bringing in about 22 billion euro each year while creating more than , jobs for an estimated 5, businesses across Europe. In the ever-changing political and economic environment across Europe, there is a growing need for a collective voice to speak on behalf of members of the EU wood-based panel industry and European Panel EPF Federation provides just that. Their mission is to advocate for all producers of particleboard, MDF, OSB, hardboard, softboard and plywood producers, suppliers and stakeholders for economic, technical and environmental issues towards European and international institutions. As WVCO is a multinational corporation, we are especially proud to partner with this outstanding organization that is taking steps to further the wood products industry throughout Europe. We are recognized the world over by industry associations and organizations, as well as other leading-edge companies who have found it beneficial to forge partnerships with us in order to better serve their customers and memberships. Those same partnerships have enabled us to better serve our customers by giving us access to the latest technologies, methodologies, and resources.
Legit Forum takes care of its employees as you would expect from a family business. There is close engagement, creating a healthy foundation for a successful collaboration. Employees are the heart and soul of the organisation.
The potential use of wood residues for energy generation 6. In mechanical wood processing the greater part of the thermal energy requirements can be met from the available residues, in fact, the sawmilling industry has the potential to produce both a surplus of heat and electricity and therefore could support other energy deficient conversion processes in an integrated complex producing, for example, lumber, plywood and particleboard or, in the rural areas, to supplying energy for the needs of the surrounding community. Over the years many mills have regarded wood waste as a troublesome by-product of the sawmilling operation, resulting in its being disposed of as landfill or incinerated in Wigwam burners or the like. However, both have recently become contentious environmental issues and, combined with the rising costs of energy, mill owners have been forced to seriously consider the merits of using the residues as an alternative fuel source this has also coincided with the increase in demand for the residues as furnish for paper-pulp and panel board manufacture, due to the rising cost and increased competition for solid wood.
Applicationctober8, ; Serial No. In the manufacture of plywood sheets, the edges of the plywood'sheets are trimmed as a final operation to bring the sheetsto size and to provide straight edges on the sheets.