Humans keep domesticated animals because they provide something of value. Important but frequently overlooked contributions include draft power, manure, fibers, hides and other by-products. Diets based on meat, eggs and dairy products contain proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins present in appropriate amounts and readily digestible forms to meet all human nutritional requirements. In the past, animal protein was considered essential in human diets but recent knowledge suggests that this is not absolutely true. A highly diversified vegetarian diet can also provide all necessities but these may be obtained more readily through consumption of some animal products. It must be conceded, however, that most people enjoy eating meat and dairy products and do so by choice rather than through absolute necessity.
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Animal husbandryVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Robert Irwin's Baby Camel Kisses Jimmy on the Lips
Forage Crops Lorann Stallones. Livestock Confinement Kelley Donham. Animal Husbandry Dean T. Stueland and Paul D. Manure and Waste Handling William Popendorf. Cattle, Sheep and Goats Melvin L. Poultry and Egg Production Steven W. Horses and Other Equines Lynn Barroby.
Draught Animals in Asia D. Bull Raising David L. Fish Farming and Aquaculture George A. Conway and Ray RaLonde. Myers and Donald Barnard. Livestock uses 2. International livestock production 1, tonnes 3. Types of human health problems associated with livestock 5. Primary zoonoses by world region 6.
Potential arthropod hazards in the workplace 8. Compounds identified in swine confinement Ambient levels of various gases in swine confinement Respiratory diseases associated with swine production Zoonotic diseases of livestock handlers Physical properties of manure Some important toxicologic benchmarks for hydrogen sulphide Some safety procedures related to manure spreaders Types of ruminants domesticated as livestock Respiratory illnesses from exposures on livestock farms Zoonoses associated with horses Normal draught power of various animals.
Humans depend upon animals for food and related by-products, work and a variety of other uses see table 1. To meet these demands, they have domesticated or held in captivity species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and arthropods. These animals have become known as livestock, and rearing them has implications for occupational safety and health. This general profile of the industry includes its evolution and structure, the economic importance of different commodities of livestock, and regional characteristics of the industry and workforce.
The articles in this chapter are organized by occupational processes, livestock sectors and consequences of livestock rearing. By-products and other uses. Fluid and dried milk, butter, cheese and curd, casein, evaporated milk, cream, yoghurt and other fermented milk, ice cream, whey.
Male calves and old cows sold into the cattle commodity market; milk as an industrial feedstock of carbohydrates lactose as a diluent for drugs , proteins used as a surfactant to stabilize food emulsions and fats lipids have potential uses as emulsifiers, surfactants and gels , offal. Hides and skins leather, collagens for sausage casings, cosmetics, wound dressing, human tissue repair , offal, work traction , wool, hair, dung as fuel and fertilizer , bone meal, religious objects, pet food, tallow and grease fatty acids, varnish, rubber goods, soaps, lamp oil, plastics, lubricants fat, blood meal.
Feathers and down, manure as fertilizer , leather, fat, offal, flightless bird oil carrier for dermal path pharmaceuticals , weed control geese in mint fields. Pets, furs and skins, guard dogs, seeing-eye dogs, hunting dogs, experimentation, sheep herding by the dog , rodent control by the cat.
Honey, species grubs, grasshoppers, ants, crickets, termites, locusts, beetle larvae, wasps and bees, moth caterpillars are a regular diet among many non-western societies. Livestock evolved over the past 12, years through selection by human communities and adaptation to new environments. Historians believe that goat and sheep were the first species of animals domesticated for human use. Then, about 9, years ago, humans domesticated the pig.
The cow was the last major food animal that humans domesticated, about 8, years ago in Turkey or Macedonia. It was probably only after cattle were domesticated that milk was discovered as a useful foodstuff. Goat, sheep, reindeer and camel milk were also used.
People of Mexico had domesticated the turkey Tannahill Humans used several other mammalian and avian species for food, as well as amphibian and fish species and various arthropods.
Honey from the honey bee was an early food; smoking bees from their nest to collect honey was known in Egypt as early as 5, years ago. Humans also domesticated many mammals for use for draught, including the horse, donkey, elephant, dog, buffalo, camel and reindeer. The first animal used for draught, perhaps with the exception of the dog, was likely the goat, which could defoliate scrub for land cultivation through its browsing.
Historians believe that Asians domesticated the Asian wolf, which was to become the dog, 13, years ago. The dog proved to be useful to the hunter for its speed, hearing and sense of smell, and the sheepdog aided in the early domestication of sheep Tannahill The people of the steppe lands of Eurasia domesticated the horse about 4, years ago. Its use for work traction was stimulated by the invention of the horseshoe, collar harness and feeding of oats. Although draught is still important in much of the world, farmers displace draught animals with machines as farming and transportation becomes more mechanized.
Some mammals, such as the cat, are used to control rodents Caras The structure of the current livestock industry can be defined by commodities, the animal products that enter the market. Global meat production nearly trebled between and Over this period, per capita consumption increased from 21 to 33 kilograms per annum.
Because of the limitations of available rangeland, beef production levelled off in As a result, animals that are more efficient in converting feed grain into meat, such as pigs and chickens, have gained a competitive advantage.
Both pork and poultry have been increasing in dramatic contrast to beef production. Pork overtook beef in worldwide production in the late s. Poultry may soon exceed beef production.
Mutton production remains low and stagnant USDA a. Milk cows worldwide have been slowly decreasing while milk production has been increasing because of increasing production per cow USDA b.
Aquaculture production increased at an annual rate of 9. They also become a vital source of protein during times of famine DeFoliart Separating the workforce engaged in livestock rearing from other agricultural activities is difficult. Pastoral activities, such as those in much of Africa, and heavy commodity-based operations, such as those in the United States, have differentiated more between livestock and crop raising. However, many agro-pastoral and agronomic enterprises integrate the two.
In much of the world, draught animals are still used extensively in crop production. Moreover, livestock and poultry depend upon feed and forage generated from crop operations, and these operations are commonly integrated. The principal aquaculture species in the world is the plant-eating carp.
Insect production is also tied directly to crop production. The silkworm feeds exclusively on mulberry leaves; honeybees depend upon flower nectar; plants depend upon them for pollination work; and humans harvest edible grubs from various crops.
Regional characteristics related to livestock rearing follow. Animal husbandry has been practised in sub-Saharan Africa for more than 5, years. Nomadic husbandry of the early livestock has evolved species that tolerate poor nutrition, infectious diseases and long migrations. Although its importance has grown since the mids, aquaculture has contributed little to the food supply for this region. Aquaculture in this region is based upon pond farming of tilapias, and export enterprises have attempted to culture marine shrimps.
An export aquaculture industry in this region is expected to grow because Asian demand for fish is expected to increase, which will be fuelled by Asian investment and technology drawn to the region by a favourable climate and by African labour.
Livestock rearing operations are mainly small-scale units in this region, but large commercial farms are establishing operations near urban centres. In rural areas, millions of people depend on livestock for meat, milk, eggs, hides and skins, draught power and wool.
China exceeds the rest of the world with million pigs; the remainder of the world has a total of million pigs. Milk production is a part of traditional agriculture in many countries of this region. At 6,, tonnes, China alone produces nearly half of the world production,. Demand for fish is expected to increase rapidly, and aquaculture is expected to meet this demand. In this region of million people, Increased urbanization and mechanization have led to this decrease.
Much of this arable land is in the moist, cool northern climates and is conducive to growing pastures for livestock. As a result, much of the livestock raising is located in the northern part of this region.
Europe contributed 8. Aquaculture has concentrated on relatively high-value species of finfish , tonnes and shellfish , tonnes. The Latin American and Caribbean region differs from other regions in many ways. Large tracts of land remain to be exploited, the region has large populations of domestic animals and much of the agriculture is operated as large operations.
Livestock represents about one-third of the agricultural production, which makes up a significant part of the gross domestic product.
Domestic goats and sheep can graze marginal lands, such as those in the Gobi Desert in Mongolia. The need for efficient food production has never been greater. One in seven humans is undernourished 1. Urbanization and biofuel production are reducing land availability, and climate change, lack of water and soil degradation are decreasing harvests.
Table of Contents
Humans depend upon animals for food and related by-products, work and a variety of other uses see table To meet these demands, they have domesticated or held in captivity species of mammals, birds, reptiles, fish and arthropods. These animals have become known as livestock, and rearing them has implications for occupational safety and health. This general profile of the industry includes its evolution and structure, the economic importance of different commodities of livestock, and regional characteristics of the industry and workforce. The articles in this chapter are organized by occupational processes, livestock sectors and consequences of livestock rearing. Livestock evolved over the past 12, years through selection by human communities and adaptation to new environments.
Table of Contents
This highly topical book comes at a time when the two-way relationship between humankind and the environment is moving inexorably to the top of the agenda. It covers both sides of this delicate balancing act, explaining how various natural processes influence humanity, including its economic activities and engineering structures, while also illuminating the ways in which human activity puts pressure on the natural environment. The author moves on to consider the effect we have on nature, ranging from the impact of heavy industry to the environmental consequences of sport and recreational pastimes. Complete with maps, photographs and detailed case studies, this book provides a comprehensive overview of the biggest issue we face as a species—the way we relate to the natural world around us.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Baby Reindeer Loves Hugs!
With the second edition of this culinary classic, food writer and publisher Tom Jaine takes This outstanding culinary reference is destined to become a classic, and Davidson, the book's editor and the author of many of its entries, deserves the eternal gratitude of researchers everywhere Oxford University Press Amazon. The Oxford Companion to Food. Alan Davidson. Its blend of serious food history, culinary expertise, and entertaining serendipity, was and remains unique. Interest in food, cooking, and the culture surrounding food has grown enormously in the intervening period, as has the study of food and food history. University departments, international societies, and academic journals have sprung up dedicated to exploring the meaning of food in the daily lives of people around the world, alongside an ever-increasing number of articles, books, programmes, and websites in the general media devoted to the discussion of food, making the Oxford Companion to Food more relevant than ever. Already a food writing classic, this Companion combines an exhaustive catalogue of foods, be they biscuits named after battles, divas or revolutionaries; body parts from nose to tail, toe to cerebellum ; or breads from the steppes of Asia or the well-built ovens of the Mediterranean; with a richly allusive commentary on the culture of food, expressed in literature and cookery books, or as dishes peculiar to a country or community. While building on the Companion's existing strengths, Tom Jaine has taken the opportunity to update the text and alert readers to new perspectives in food studies.
Can monetising camel products revive Rajasthan’s state animal?
Although our hunter-gatherer ancestors relied on an enormous array of animal species to fulfil their protein requirements, only a handful of these were subsequently domesticated, and cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens currently represent the main animals used for global meat production. In spite of various attempts to improve the productivity of these traditional livestock species, this sector is facing immense pressure to meet the increasing demand for animal protein from a growing human population, and the future situation will likely only be aggravated by global warming, water shortages, and land restrictions for livestock production. Various animals, such as goats, camels, yak, and water buffalo, have accompanied man for centuries, surviving in the harshest conditions and on sparse feed resources. Due to their outstanding adaptability, these species could become crucial for future food supply, as well as for socio—economic and environmental stability.
Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. Look up words and phrases in comprehensive, reliable bilingual dictionaries and search through billions of online translations. Look up in Linguee Suggest as a translation of "reindeer" Copy. DeepL Translator Linguee. Open menu. Translator Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. Linguee Look up words and phrases in comprehensive, reliable bilingual dictionaries and search through billions of online translations. Blog Press Information Linguee Apps. Due to the specific economic situation of the production and marketin g o f reindeer a n d reindeer p r od ucts, Finland and Sweden should continue to grant national payments in that regard.
Agriculture: Steps to sustainable livestock
Increased modernisation in the desert state such as roads and tractors has reduced the economic importance of camels. Camels were their prized assets. They provided mobility in the desert; were good draught animals; could survive continuous spells of hot and arid conditions; and, during drought and famine when other livestock perished, they offered nutritious milk. In fact, the Raikas recall that in , when large parts of Rajasthan was hit by a famine, people survived just by drinking camel milk. One of the rules that used to be followed by the community was never to sell camel milk. They believed this milk, just like their children, was a gift of god, and while it could be shared, it could not be commodified.
In developing and under-developed counties, the secondary dairyspecies play a crucial role in supplying the food and nutritionalneeds of the people in those regions. Due to the unavailability ofcow milk and the low consumption of meat, the milks of minorspecies such as goat, buffalo, sheep, and camel are critical dailyfood sources of protein, phosphate and calcium. Furthermore,because of important and inherent hypoallergenic properties, milksof certain species such as goat milk have been recommended assubstitutes in diets for those with cow milk allergies. Editors Park and Haenlein have assembled dairy and nutritionexperts from around the world to contribute to the Handbook ofMilk of Non-Bovine Mammals. Secondary dairy species addressedare the goat, sheep, buffalo, mare, camel, yak, deer reindeer ,sow, llama, alpaca, moose, musk ox, caribou, ass, elk, pinniped,polar bear and human.
The explosion of industrial agriculture across the globe over the last century or two has made it extremely easy to acquire skins to tan. But, before technological advancements made raising livestock more feasible, leather was still being made.
This two-volume set represents the most comprehensive study of food and famine currently available, providing the broadest analysis of hunger and famine causes as well as a detailed examination of the ramifications of cultural and natural hazards upon famine. Volume one focuses upon 50 topics and issues relating to the creation of hunger and famines in the world from BCE to , including an overview of how agriculture has evolved from primitive hunting and gathering that supported limited numbers of people to a worldwide system that now feeds over seven billion people.
Drugs and deer farming. Bannerman, M. Blaxter Ed. The husbandring of red deer.
Stronger measures are in place at our borders to stop African swine fever from entering Australia. Have your say now. Australian Eggs and Australian Pork Limited are the industry service bodies responsible for research and development and marketing activities for the egg and pork industries respectively. Agrifutures Australia carries out research and development for other established industries including kangaroo, camel, rabbit, horses, deer and chicken meat.