NCBI Bookshelf. Working safely with hazardous chemicals requires proper use of laboratory equipment. Maintenance and regular inspection of laboratory equipment are essential parts of this activity. Many of the accidents that occur in the laboratory can be attributed to improper use or maintenance of laboratory equipment. This chapter discusses prudent practices for handling equipment used frequently in laboratories.
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- List of measuring devices
- Ag Power Web Enhanced Course Materials
- Digital computer
- PCE Instruments UK: Test Instruments
- Biomedical Sensor, Device and Measurement Systems
- Tesla Meter Unit
- SIKO | Measurement technology since 1963
- HBM eDrive Testing: Power Analyzer and Data Acquisition System for Testing Electrical Drives
- Electrical Safety Precautions and Basic Equipment
List of measuring devicesVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Know Your Measuring Devices
Advances in Bioengineering. Sensors are very critical components in all devices and measurement systems. They have been widely used in a lot of fields such as science, medicine, automated manufacturing, environmental monitoring, and so on. To some extent, sensors are multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary field of endeavor. There are a lot of terms which are often used for sensors including transducer, meter, detector, and gage. Defining the term sensor is a very difficult task.
At present, there is not a uniform definition which is agreed by all of us. A transducer is more generally defined as a device which converts energy from one form to another. Output of sensor can be an optical, electrical, chemical, or mechanical signal.
In the field of electrical engineering, the measurand is physical, chemical, or biological property or condition measured; hence output of biological signal should be an electrical signal, too. The words sensor and transducer are both commonly used in the context of measurement systems, and often in an interchangeable manner.
Transducer is used more in the United States, and sensor has great popularity in Europe and China. The blurring of lines between the exact meaning of sensors and transducers leads to a degree of confusion. Most but not all sensors are transducers, employing one or more transduction mechanisms to produce an electrical output signal.
According to the basic sensing principle, sensors are classified into mechanical sensors, electrochemical sensors, biosensors, optical sensors, semiconductor sensors, magnetic sensors, and thermal sensors. From different viewpoints, there are different classifying methods. According to the physical parameters measured by sensors, sensors are classified into resistance displacement sensor, inductive displacement sensor, capacitive displacement sensor, piezoelectric pressure sensor, laser interferometer displacement sensor, bore gagging displacement sensor, ultrasonic displacement sensor, optical encoder displacement sensor, optical fiber displacement sensor, optical beam deformation sensor, flow sensor, imaging sensor, temperature sensor, intelligent sensor and chemical ingredient sensor.
Biomedical sensors are used to gain the information on body and pathology, which is a branch of biomedical engineering. Biomedical sensors are classified into physical sensor, chemical sensor and biosensor. Physical sensor could be employed to measure blood pressure, body temperature, blood flux, blood viscosity, biological magnetic field, etc. In nature, biosensor is a kind of chemical sensor, which is mainly used to detect biological signals.
Packaging of certain biomedical sensor is an important consideration during the design, fabrication, and use of the device. Obviously, the biomedical sensor has to be safe, soft, and reliable for biomedical sensors often touch the body skin or inner organs of patients. In the development of implantable biosensor, an additional key issue is to consider the biocompatibility of sensor and operational lifetime in body. When a biomedical sensor is implanted into the body, it inevitably contacts with body fluids.
Then body will affect the function of biomedical sensor, or sensor will affect the site that it is implanted. For example, protein absorption and cellular deposition can alter the permeability of sensor packaging that is designed to both protect sensor and allow free chemical diffusion of certain analytics between body fluids and the biosensor. Unsuitable packaging of implantable biomedical sensor could lead to drift and a gradual loss of sensor sensitivity and stability overtime.
Furthermore, inflammation of tissue, infection, or clotting in a vascular site could produce some harmful or adverse effects on biomedical sensor. One convenient method is to utilize various polymer covering material and barrier layers to prevent the toxic sensor components from coming into body.
Accurate medical diagnostic procedures require the stringent specifications on the design and use of biomedical sensor. Depending on the intended applications, the performance specifications of biomedical sensor may be evaluated to ensure that the measurement meets the design specifications. The following definitions are commonly used to describe sensor characteristics and select sensor for particular applications.
The range of sensor corresponds to the minimum and maximum operation limits that sensor is expected to measure accurately. For example, a pressure sensor may have a nominal performance over the operating range from 0 Pa to 10MPa.
Sensitivity refers to the ratio of output change for a given input change. Another way to define sensitivity is to find the slope of calibration line relating the input to the output, as illustrated in figure 1. A high sensitivity implies that a small change in input causes a large change in output. For example, a pressure sensor may have a sensitivity of 0. If the calibration curve is linear seen in figure 1 a , then sensitivity of sensor will be constant, whereas the sensitivity of sensor will vary with the input when the calibration is nonlinear, as in figure 1 b.
Alternatively, sensitivity can be defined as the smallest change in input that will result in a detectable change in sensor output. Accuracy refers to the difference between the true value and the actual value measured by sensor. Classically, accuracy is expressed as a ratio between the preceding difference and the true value; it is specified as a percent of full-scale readings.
Here, note that the true value could be traceable to a primary reference standard. Precision refers to the degree of measurement reproducibility under the same conditions.
Very reproducible readings indicate a high precision. Precision should not be confused with accuracy. For an example, measurement may be very precise but not necessary accurate.
When the input is increased from some arbitrary nonzero value, the output of a sensor will not change until a certain input increment is exceeded. Accordingly, resolution is defined as the smallest distinguishable input change that can be detected with certainty.
Reproducibility describes how close measurements are when same input is repeatedly exerted into same sensor under same conditions. When the range of measurement is small, the reproducibility is very high. Here, what need to be noticed is that reproducibility can vary depending on the measurement range. In other words, readings can be highly reproducible over one range and less reproducible over a different operating range. Offset refers to the output value when input value is zero, seen in figure 1 a and b.
Usually, linearity of sensor is expressed as a percent of full-scale readings or a percent of the actual readings. Linearity could be expressed as the following equation:.
S is the full-scale meaning value of sensor, Y F. The response time indicates that the time it takes a sensor to reach a percent of its final steady-state value when input of sensor is changed. For example, it takes 10 seconds for pressure sensor to reach 95 percent of its maximum value when a change in pressure of 1Pa is measured. Ideally, a short response time indicates the ability of a sensor to respond quickly to change in input.
Drift refers to the change in sensor reading when the input keeps constant. Drift is divided into temperature drift and zero point drift. Zero point drift refers to the output without any input or with a constant input. Zero point drift could be expressed as the following equation:. Temperature drift refers to the change of output with the change of temperature. It means the deviation of sensor output, which could be expressed as the following equation:. In some sensors, the input-output characteristic follows a different nonlinear trend, depending on whether input increase or decrease, as in figure 2.
For example, a certain pressure sensor could produce a different output voltage when the input pressure varies from zero to full scale and then back to zero. When the measurement is not perfectly reversible, the sensor will show its hysteresis. If a sensor exhibits hysteresis, the input-output relationship is not unique, but depends on the direction change to the input value of sensor.
Biosensor is a kind of device which senses biomaterial and its concentration, and which converts the biosignal into electrical signal. Biosensor has the function of acceptor and converter, which configuration is seen in figure 3.
In biosensor, the physicochemical change of the biologically active material resulting from the interaction with the analyte must be converted into an electrical output signal by an appropriate converter.
In the course of detecting the parameters of analytes, biomaterial should be always immobile. In order to develop biosensor, some biotechnology has to be studied and applied, such as DNA biosensor, PH sensor, microelectrode, and so on. Biological active material immobilized is used as catalyst, and expensive reagents could be repeatedly used to detect same biological parameters.
Biosensor has intensive specificity. Biomaterial only senses definitive ingredient and it is not affected by color and concentration of measured material. According to biological sensing component, biosensor may be divided into five classes: enzyme sensor, microbe sensor, cell sensor, tissue sensor, and immune sensors.
According to the signal converter of biosensor, biosensor may be also divided into five classes: bioelectrode sensor, semiconductor biosensor, optical biosensor, piezoelectric biosensor and thermal biosensor. According to the interaction between sensing component and measured material, biosensor can be divided into two classes: affinity biosensor and catalytic biosensor. Detecting the information of clinical chemistry. For example, before operating on a patient, a doctor needs to know the body temperature and blood pressure.
Under this condition, clinic thermometer and blood sensor has to be employed to help doctor quickly detect body temperature and blood pressure of patient. Continuously monitoring some parameters of biology outside and inside. In biomedical field, heart frequency has to be monitored continuously by heart sound sensor for a few days after operation.
In military, some viruses need to be found by biosensor to hold back the attacking from enemy. In medicine, people usually utilize some parameter detected by biomedical sensor to control or adjust physiological course of body.
In the food industry, biomedical sensor could be utilized to measure some enzyme and its concentration to control the process of fabricating food and to analyze the nutritional ingredient of food.
In military, biomedical sensor could be employed to detect the situation of battle field to adjust the strategy of spying or attacking enemy. Of course, biomedical sensor such as PH sensor could be also employed to detect our atmosphere and condition to improve our living situation.
Many different kinds of sensors can be used in biomedical application. According to the sensing principle in biomedical application, biomedical sensors can be classified into physical sensors and chemical sensors, seen in table 1. In the case of physical sensors, quantities such as geometric, mechanical, thermal, and hydraulic variables are measured. In biomedical applications these variables can include things such as muscle displacement, blood pressure, core body temperature, blood flow, cerebrospinal fluid pressure, and bone growth velocity.
Two types of physical sensors deserve special mention with regard to their biomedical application: sensors of electrical phenomena in the body, usually known as electrodes, play a special role as a result of their diagnostic therapeutic applications.
The most familiar of these are sensors used to pick up the electrocardiogram, an electrical signal produced by the heart. The other type of physical sensor that finds many applications in biology and medicine is optical sensor.
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Ag Power Web Enhanced Course Materials
Bulk storage of portable containers of flammable liquids shall be in a separate, constructed building detached from other important buildings or cut off in a standard manner. Where entire dependence for emergency relief is placed upon pressure relieving devices, the total venting capacity of both normal and emergency vents shall be enough to prevent rupture of the shell or bottom of the tank if vertical, or of the shell or heads if horizontal. If unstable liquids are stored, the effects of heat or gas resulting from polymerization, decomposition, condensation, or self-reactivity shall be taken into account. The total capacity of both normal and emergency venting devices shall be not less than that derived from Table F except as provided in paragraph i 2 v E or F of this section. Such device may be a self-closing manhole cover, or one using long bolts that permit the cover to lift under internal pressure, or an additional or larger relief valve or valves. The wetted area of the tank shall be calculated on the basis of 55 percent of the total exposed area of a sphere or spheroid, 75 percent of the total exposed area of a horizontal tank and the first 30 feet 9.
Today SIKO sums up five decades of experience in length , angle and speed measuremen t technology. Building upon this core competence, SIKO develops and manufactures groundbreaking products for automation and drive engineering. The highest demands of our industrial and machine engineering customers lead to quality, precision and functionality of our products and services. Sustainable resource management is a matter of course for us.
Digital computer , any of a class of devices capable of solving problems by processing information in discrete form. It operates on data, including magnitudes, letters, and symbols, that are expressed in binary code —i. By counting, comparing, and manipulating these digits or their combinations according to a set of instructions held in its memory , a digital computer can perform such tasks as to control industrial processes and regulate the operations of machines; analyze and organize vast amounts of business data; and simulate the behaviour of dynamic systems e. A brief treatment of digital computers follows. For full treatment, see computer science: Basic computer components. A typical digital computer system has four basic functional elements: 1 input-output equipment , 2 main memory , 3 control unit, and 4 arithmetic-logic unit. Any of a number of devices is used to enter data and program instructions into a computer and to gain access to the results of the processing operation. Common input devices include keyboards and optical scanners; output devices include printers and monitors.
PCE Instruments UK: Test Instruments
Account Options Prijava. Census of Manufactures and Census of Mineral Industries : Numerical list of manufactured and mineral products. Izbrane strani Naslovna stran. Kazalo vsebine.
This site will look much better in a browser that supports web standards , but it is accessible to any browser or Internet device. If you experience any problems with the site, please contact Pete Hoffman immediately so corrections can be made. Pete can be reached on campus, via email at phoffman swtc. Ammeters are always connected in series with the circuit to be tested. One ampere is the amount of current flow provided when one volt of electrical pressure is applied against one ohm of resistance. The ampere is used to measure electricity much as "gallons per minute" is used to measure water flow. It is obtained by multiplying the current in amperes by the time in hours during which current flows. For example, a battery which provides 5 amperes for 20 hours is said to deliver ampere - hours. It is the crest value measured from zero. They include many kinds of amplifiers that involve analog - to - digital conversions and vice versa, timers, and inverters.
Biomedical Sensor, Device and Measurement Systems
The unit of magnetic induction is named to honor Tesla; a tesla abbreviated T is equal to one weber per square meter. Tesla style head unit is more and more popular nowadays, even for some cheap cars you are able to replace the original car radio system with an aftermarket Tesla style large screen Android head unit. Tesla will need to bring some serious content to overcome the looks. Both measure exactly the same thing, the magnetic field generated by current flow or the magnetic B field. In terms of base units only,. Measuring unit display is selectable: Gauss or Tesla. In addition to the standard PRB transverse type , an axial type AXL capable of measurement in the vertical direction and having higher durability is optionally available. Probably cheaper to have a small dedicated 3 phase consumer unit for the car supply and leave the house supply as is. Several other things to check:.
Tesla Meter Unit
PCE Instruments PCE is an international supplier of test instruments, tools and equipment for measuring, weighing and control systems. Founded by German engineers nearly two decades ago, PCE offers more than test instruments with applications in industrial engineering and process control, manufacturing quality assurance, scientific research, trade industries and beyond. In addition, PCE can provide custom test instruments on demand. PCE serves customers from government, industry and academia in diverse fields such as acoustical engineering, aerospace, agriculture, archaeology, architecture, automotive, aviation, bioengineering, building inspection, chemistry, civil engineering, computer science, construction, data acquisition, education, electrical engineering, energy, environmental science, food processing, forensics, forestry, geology, government, horticulture, HVAC, hydrology, industrial hygiene, law enforcement, library science, logistics, machining, maintenance, manufacturing, materials science, mechanical engineering, metal working, meteorology, military, mining, nondestructive testing NDT , occupational health and safety, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, property management, pulp and paper, physics, robotics, structural engineering, supply chain, transportation, tribology, veterinary science, water treatment, welding, woodworking and more. Test instruments can be found in research laboratories as well as in places like automobile repair shops, construction job sites and manufacturing facilities.
SIKO | Measurement technology since 1963
Account Options Prijava. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census , - strani. Izbrane strani Naslovna stran.
HBM eDrive Testing: Power Analyzer and Data Acquisition System for Testing Electrical Drives
This paper discusses the past, present, and future of length and dimensional measurements at NIST. It covers the evolution of the SI unit of length through its three definitions and the evolution of NBS-NIST dimensional measurement from early linescales and gage blocks to a future of atom-based dimensional standards.
Electrical Safety Precautions and Basic Equipment
HBM eDrive Testing is the modern measuring system for testing inverters and electrical machines. Users in electrification testing benefit from significant advantages over the use of a conventional power analyzer.
Все дальнейшие действия, которые привели их под заложенный выход, были относительно несложными. Когда октопауки увели с собой Элли, Бенджи с воплем выскочил в коридор и набросился на их арьергард. Роберт присоединился к нему, и они вдвоем последовали за Элли и отрядом инопланетян до зала.