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Learn to connect power supplies in parallel for higher current output.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Electronic Basics #16: Resistors
Many loads act as resistors --the glowing wires in toasters or ovens, or the glowing filaments in "incandescant' lamp bulbs. Other loads can often be approximately handled as resistors--e. Here only the simplest circuits will be studied , those involving resistors and steady currents either DC or AC. This holds across any portion of the circuit: if V is the voltage drop across it and R its effective resistance, then I is the current flowing in it.
Of course, at a node in the circuit where several conductors meet, the sum of the currents flowing into the note must always equal the sum flowing out. Notice that only voltage difference counts. In the above formulas, V really means "the voltage difference between the ends of the resistor. The ambiguity can be removed by choosing--for the purpose of calculations--one point to have voltage zero. In practical circuits, this is usually a point connected to the ground which, though not always as good a conductor as metal, is large enough to maintain a constant voltage that can serve as reference.
In diagrams the ground is marked by a number of short horizontal lines, whose length decreases towards bottom so that they fill the space of a triangle. Suppose the circuit contains two resistors connected end-to-end or "in series", to that the same current I passes both resistors "in series" were already met earlier, on a more casual level.
Let as before the right end be connected to V 2 , the left end grounded and the voltage at the intermediate point be denoted V 1. The current is smaller than before, because an additional resistance was inserted.
Another example, with an AC source and 3 resistors in series, is shown above. In an AC circuit, the voltage constantly changes and reverses polarity, and the value of volt is really some sort of average implying that V DC would deliver just as much energy. Rotating control knobs on a radio or another instrument are likely to be connected to voltage dividers.
The sliding contact C arrowhead can tap any voltage between V when it touches A and zero when it touches B , and accordingly adjust the loudness of the sound, the brightness of the display or some other output.
Often the sliding contact goes to the input of an amplifier, so that it draws only a small current and does not create an appreciable variation of the energy demand. If only A and C are connected, this becomes a variable resistor , but then the power drawn varies widely with the setting.
Variable resistors are marked in circuit diagrams by a zig-sag line for the resistor, crossed diagonally by an arrow. Resistors are important elements in many devices.
In a radio, currents are small and do not generate much heating, so resistors are often small plastic cylinders from whose ends connecting wires stick out. The resistor element is very much like the lead of a pencil, which conducts electricity by containing graphite, a form of carbon. Here the carbon may be finely mixed with a non-conducting substance, to control resistivity, or a conducting layer is deposited on the core.
They tend to be more stable and can take more heating, i. The same current I flows through all of them, but the imposed voltage V is divided among the resistors in proportion to their resistance--more of it drops across the larger resistance, less across the smaller one.
The other "standard" connection scheme of resistors is in parallel --all resistors receiving input from the same point, and supplying their current to the same point. In this case, all resistors sense the same voltage V, but the current I is divided between them, the smaller resistance drawing more current. Suppose we have 3 resistors. Suppose you wired a room for two identical lightbulbs, and when you turned on the circuit, both switched on together, as they were supposed to--but their light was dim and their filaments glowed weakly.
Most probably because you wired both lamps in series, not in parallel, so that the same current passes through both and each gets only 55 volts. Want to be sure? Unscrew one--the other should go out, too.
Of course, the total current you can draw from a home circuit is limited. If you connect too many lights and appliances, or somehow connect wires with opposite voltages directly a " short circuit " with very little resistance , your circuit will draw so much power that your wiring gets dangerously hot. In most cases, a fuse will blow or a circuit breaker to be discussed later will cut the power, and the circuit will go dark.
That will be your warning--before an excessive current melts your wiring, burns insulation or perhaps starts a house fire. Newspaper reports of fires often end with " To derive the current drawn by a more complicated circuit, you can often start by replacing combinations of resistors with equivalent resistances. Such a situation arises with batteries and cells under heavy load. The current they supply has to overcome not only the resistance, in the external circuit but also the internal resistance R i of the conducting liquid "electrolyte" which closes the circuit inside the battery or cell to be sure, this is a simplified pictures.
R i is generally small, but it sets a limit to the current which can be extracted, even when the terminals are connected directly "shorted out". Some voltage may drop while overcoming R 3 , but not much. How much current will flow--or in other words, what is the equivalent resistance R between A and B? This circuit cannot be resolved into separate resistors in parallel and in series at least not in the usual way.
That leaves 6 corners of " nodes " where wires meet, with voltages V 1 , V 2 , V 3 , The first 3 voltages will be assigned to points A 1 ,A 2 ,A 3 connected directly to A, the last 3 will be the voltages of B 1 ,B 2 ,B 3 connected directly to B.
There also exist 6 equations , one for each node, expressing the requirement that "what flows in equals what flows out". Six equations with 6 unknown can usually be solved: use one to express V 6 in terms of the others, use the relation to replace V 6 in the remaining 5 equations.
Then do the same to V 5 reducing the number of equations to 4, and so on, until one voltage remains, expressed by the remaining one equation. It is doable, and if all resistors were different, this sort of drudgery might be the only way though a computer code may help.
If you look at the cube in the direction of the 3-dimensional diagonal AB , you will notice a 3-fold symmetry in the position of the nodes A 1 ,A 2 ,A 3 --in each the current has two exit routes towards B, and they look exactly alike. We may therefore assign to them the same voltage V 1 to these 3 points. Node B has exactly the same symmetry with respect to B 1 ,B 2 ,B 3 , each receives currents from A by two identical routes, and twirling the cube just replaces each one by another.
We can therefore again assign here the same voltage V 2 to all 3 nodes. If we connected them by resistor of whatever value , no current would flow in it, because both ends are at the same voltage. This suggests the problem could be solved even faster by a trick based on its symmetry.
Since A 1 ,A 2 ,A 3 are all at the same voltage, we might as well connect them by a wire of negligible resistance, so in the electric circuit they become the same point--call it "C". Similarly B 1 ,B 2 ,B 3 are at the same voltage, may also be connected directly and be electrically the same point in the circuit--call it D.
With these shortcuts. What is R now? In this case, the energy turns into heat. In an incandescent lightbulb, most of the resistance is in a thin coiled wire "filament" made of the metal tungsten, which gets so hot that it radiates visible light. The heating wires in an electric toaster, a room heater or an electric oven operate in a similar way, but only get red-hot.
Fluorescent lights [Note spelling! That light emission comes from individual atoms and is more efficient than the emission caused by heat. The cited web page describes old-style fluorescent lights; newer compact kinds contain more complex circuitry. Light emitting diodes use semi-conductors and are even more efficient. Microwave ovens first convert the electric energy to short-wave radio waves, which are then absorbed by the food inside, Never run such an oven without something inside to absorb the energy, even if it is just a cup of water: otherwise the energy is absorbed by the oven itself, which may damage it.
Fluorescent lights, light emitting diodes and microwave ovens do not rely on simple heating, and deliver their energy by a more efficient process. Electric Safety. The heat which electricity produces can be the source of danger. Two wires usually connect a house to the power station: in one electricity may be said to flow in, in the other out. Usually, the connection between them in the house also includes some load --e. If however the two happen to touch directly , in parts not covered by insulation, a current will flow directly between them.
Because the resistance of the direct path a " short circuit " or simply "a short" is very small, that current may in principle be huge. Without extra protection discussed in the next section , its limits would be set mainly by the small resistance of the wires themselves!
That can be dangerous: the wires heat up and may melt somewhere inside the wall, where they are hard to repair , or worse, their heat may start a fire. As newspaper stories confirm, many home fires are started by electricity. Two barriers prevent such mishaps: Fuses or circuit breakers , and electrical codes. To remember: Heat generated by electricity can be a fire hazard. Electric Codes and the Grounding of Wires Electrical codes exist in all US states and in countries all over the world , specifying standards which electric wiring must satisfy.
In new homes, new plants and renovated construction, an official inspector examines the wiring for a fee to make sure it conforms to all rules of the code. If so, a license is issued, without which no insurance company will insure the construction against fire.
The regulations are detailed, and professional electricians must be familiar with them. In many localities homeowners may work on the wiring of their own homes, but they too must follow the code.
All wires that carry current must have an insulation sufficient to hold back their voltage--you may not use telephone wire to carry volts house current. In addition, a third bare un-insulated "ground wire" must follow all electrical lines, connected to all outlets and also to water pipes, and in one place, to the white "return wire.
Strictly speaking, the flow in a water pipe is not driven by pressure, but the pressure difference between its ends.
The air we breathe has a pressure of one atmosphere, but that pressure alone doesn't make it move anywhere: to move air requires a difference in air pressure between two points. Similarly, a voltage V itself will not move electric current through a wire: you need a high voltage at one end, and a low voltage at the other. Only voltage differences can drive a current. The "value of the voltage" at any point in the circuit only becomes meaningful after we decide that some reference point in the circuit has "voltage zero" and for purpose of calculation, any point may be chosen.
Compare this with elevations on a map : only after choosing a reference point where the elevation is zero usually, at sea level can the values of other elevations be assigned values. If a different reference point were chosen say, the top of the US Capitol dome in Washington , all those numbers would change. The ground is a weak conductor, and is usually at a single voltage--and our bodies, walking on it, also have that voltage.
The electric circuit has two wires--a black "hot" wire in which by common convention, with alternating currents the current is said to flow into the house, and a white "return" wire by which it is said to flow out again. Actually, AC sloshes back and forth, and each wire is positive half the time, negative half the time. But only the black line is assumed to have a direct connection to the power station.
Resistors that tolerate against pulse or surge are required to be used such as; precharge resistors in the circuit where large current is instantaneously applied or, resistors in the circuit where ESD is more likely to be applied. Pulse means the overload of large power and with long duration large energy whereas surge means overload like ESD, of high voltage and with short duration. Anti-pulse resistors are unlikely to be damaged even if large power is instantaneously applied. Among SMD type resistors, thick film chip resistors metal glaze film type are generally stronger against pulse than metal film chip resistors. Thick film chip resistors with special construction like SG73 , or SG73P are strong against pulse or surge.
Lamina type resistors | T500
Many loads act as resistors --the glowing wires in toasters or ovens, or the glowing filaments in "incandescant' lamp bulbs. Other loads can often be approximately handled as resistors--e. Here only the simplest circuits will be studied , those involving resistors and steady currents either DC or AC. This holds across any portion of the circuit: if V is the voltage drop across it and R its effective resistance, then I is the current flowing in it. Of course, at a node in the circuit where several conductors meet, the sum of the currents flowing into the note must always equal the sum flowing out. Notice that only voltage difference counts. In the above formulas, V really means "the voltage difference between the ends of the resistor.
He has written numerous publications on such topics as plant performance, maintenance engineering, maintenance management, and predictive maintenance. He is also a contributing editor for Plant Services magazine. Plant Engineer's Handbook. Keith Mobley. Elsevier ,SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: RL Circuits - Inductors & Resistors
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, bias active elements, and terminate transmission lines , among other uses. High-power resistors that can dissipate many watts of electrical power as heat, may be used as part of motor controls, in power distribution systems, or as test loads for generators. Fixed resistors have resistances that only change slightly with temperature, time or operating voltage. Variable resistors can be used to adjust circuit elements such as a volume control or a lamp dimmer , or as sensing devices for heat, light, humidity, force, or chemical activity. Resistors are common elements of electrical networks and electronic circuits and are ubiquitous in electronic equipment. Practical resistors as discrete components can be composed of various compounds and forms. Resistors are also implemented within integrated circuits. The electrical function of a resistor is specified by its resistance: common commercial resistors are manufactured over a range of more than nine orders of magnitude. The nominal value of the resistance falls within the manufacturing tolerance , indicated on the component.
Activity 1 Part (c): Control of a Resistor–Capacitor (RC) Circuit
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See search results instead:. Sprechen Sie mit einem Experten. Two or more power supplies can be connected to supply higher voltages or current. The simplest method to create higher current is to connect the power supplies in parallel and leave only one supply in constant voltage mode. Some power supplies are equipped with analog control signals that allow auto-parallel or auto-tracking, a more elegant way to control multiple power supplies. Auto-parallel supplies can be controlled with a single master supply; a second advantage is that all of the master power supplies features can be used. Auto-tracking allows multiple supplies to track the master, the slaves can have the same output characteristics or can be configured to be proportional to the master. The total output current is the sum of the output currents of the individual power supplies. The output of each power supply can be set separately. The output voltage controls of one power supply should be set to the desired output voltage CV ; the other power supplies should be set for a slightly higher output voltage. The supplies with the higher output voltage setting will provide constant current output, and will drop their output voltage until it equals the output of the CV supply.
This activity follows the modeling and identification activities explored in Activity 1a and Activity 1b. We will employ the same Resistor—Capacitor RC Circuit as employed in the previous portions of the experiment, except now we will implement control to alter the dynamics of the system. The control law will be implemented in hardware, as opposed to other activities where the control law is implemented in software. The Arduino board will only be employed for reading the voltage across the output capacitor, via one of the board's Analog Inputs. This data is then fed to Simulink for visualization.
The product group wirewound lamina type resistors comprises the integrable single components of series L and LB as well as the composed resistor units. Complete units are available in different degrees of protection and mounting methods. Lamina type resistor, in IP00, connection at 2 hard soldered wires more. Lamina type resistor, in IP00, connection at wires more. Lamina type resistor, in IP00, connection at 2 screw clips as end clips more.
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Last updated: July 22, W hen you first learn about electricity , you discover that materials fall into two basic categories called conductors and insulators.
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