Manufacture in Town and Country Before the Factory. The internal organisation of production before the development of the factory system is still shrouded in historical mystery. How goods were made before machines, how work was organised before the factory system, how artisans and labourers perceived and lived their work are questions to which we have only hesitant and tentative answers. Hitherto, historians have been too concerned with the emerging features of the modern industrial capitalist order to seek to understand how another and different economy and community worked in its own terms.
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Water Treatment SolutionsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How Chiller, AHU, RTU work - working principle Air handling unit, rooftop unit hvac system
Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use. The end use may be drinking , industrial water supply, irrigation , river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use.
This treatment is crucial to human health and allows humans to benefit from both drinking and irrigation use. Treatment for drinking water production involves the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce water that is pure enough for human consumption without any short term or long term risk of any adverse health effect. In general terms, the greatest microbial risks are associated with ingestion of water that is contaminated with human or animal including bird faeces.
Faeces can be a source of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths. Substances that are removed during the process of drinking water treatment, Disinfection is of unquestionable importance in the supply of safe drinking-water. The destruction of microbial pathogens is essential and very commonly involves the use of reactive chemical agents such suspended solids , bacteria , algae , viruses , fungi , and minerals such as iron and manganese.
These substances continue to cause great harm to several lower developed countries who do not have access to water purification. Measures taken to ensure water quality not only relate to the treatment of the water, but to its conveyance and distribution after treatment.
It is therefore common practice to keep residual disinfectants in the treated water to kill bacteriological contamination during distribution.
Water supplied to domestic properties, for tap water or other uses, may be further treated before use, often using an in-line treatment process. Such treatments can include water softening or ion exchange. Many proprietary systems also claim to remove residual disinfectants and heavy metal ions. The processes involved in removing the contaminants include physical processes such as settling and filtration , chemical processes such as disinfection and coagulation and biological processes such as slow sand filtration.
A combination selected from the following processes is used for municipal drinking water treatment worldwide.
Technologies for potable water and other uses are well-developed, and generalized designs are available from which treatment processes can be selected for pilot testing on the specific source water. In addition, a number of private companies provide patented technological solutions for the treatment of specific contaminants. Automation of water treatment is common in the developed world.
Source water quality through the seasons, scale, and environmental impact can dictate capital costs and operating costs. End use of the treated water dictates the necessary quality monitoring technologies, and locally available skills typically dictate the level of automation adopted. Saline water can be treated to yield fresh water. Two main processes are used, reverse osmosis or distillation. Living away from drinking water supplies often requires some form of portable water treatment process.
These can vary in complexity from the simple addition of a disinfectant tablet in a hiker's water bottle through to complex multi-stage processes carried by boat or plane to disaster areas.
Many developed countries specify standards to be applied in their own country. For countries without a legislative or administrative framework for such standards, the World Health Organization publishes guidelines on the standards that should be achieved.
Where drinking water quality standards do exist, most are expressed as guidelines or targets rather than requirements, and very few water standards have any legal basis or, are subject to enforcement.
Two of the main processes of industrial water treatment are boiler water treatment and cooling water treatment. A large amount of proper water treatment can lead to the reaction of solids and bacteria within pipe work and boiler housing. Steam boilers can suffer from scale or corrosion when left untreated. Scale deposits can lead to weak and dangerous machinery, while additional fuel is required to heat the same level of water because of the rise in thermal resistance.
Poor quality dirty water can become a breeding ground for bacteria such as Legionella causing a risk to public health. Corrosion in low pressure boilers can be caused by dissolved oxygen, acidity and excessive alkalinity.
Water treatment therefore should remove the dissolved oxygen and maintain the boiler water with the appropriate pH and alkalinity levels. Without effective water treatment, a cooling water system can suffer from scale formation, corrosion and fouling and may become a breeding ground for harmful bacteria. This reduces efficiency, shortens plant life and makes operations unreliable and unsafe.
Boiler water treatment is a type of industrial water treatment focused on removal or chemical modification of substances potentially damaging to the boiler. Varying types of treatment are used at different locations to avoid scale , corrosion , or foaming. External treatment of raw water supplies intended for use within a boiler is focused on removal of impurities before they reach the boiler.
Internal treatment within the boiler is focused on limiting the tendency of water to dissolve the boiler, and maintaining impurities in forms least likely to cause trouble before they can be removed from the boiler in boiler blowdown. Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment.
Water may be a more efficient heat transfer fluid where air cooling is ineffective. In most occupied climates water offers the thermal conductivity advantages of a liquid with unusually high specific heat capacity and the option of evaporative cooling. Low cost often allows rejection as waste after a single use, but recycling coolant loops may be pressurized to eliminate evaporative loss and offer greater portability and improved cleanliness. Unpressurized recycling coolant loops using evaporative cooling require a blowdown waste stream to remove impurities concentrated by evaporation.
Disadvantages of water cooling systems include accelerated corrosion and maintenance requirements to prevent heat transfer reductions from biofouling or scale formation.
Chemical additives to reduce these disadvantages may introduce toxicity to wastewater. Water cooling is commonly used for cooling automobile internal combustion engines and large industrial facilities such as nuclear and steam electric power plants , hydroelectric generators , petroleum refineries and chemical plants. Chemical treatments are techniques adopted to make industrial water suitable for discharge. These include chemical coagulation, chemical precipitation, chemical disinfection, chemical oxidation, advanced oxidation, ion exchange, and chemical neutralization.
Appropriate technology options in water treatment include both community-scale and household-scale point-of-use POU or self-supply designs.
For waterborne disease reduction to last, water treatment programs that research and development groups start in developing countries must be sustainable by the citizens of those countries.
This can ensure the efficiency of such programs after the departure of the research team, as monitoring is difficult because of the remoteness of many locations. Energy Consumption: Water treatment plants can be significant consumers of energy. Much of the energy requirements are in pumping. Processes that avoid the need for pumping tend to have overall low energy demands.
Those water treatment technologies that have very low energy requirements including trickling filters , slow sand filters , gravity aqueducts. Environmental Protection Agency EPA to set standards for drinking water quality in public water systems entities that provide water for human consumption to at least 25 people for at least 60 days a year.
EPA has set standards for over 90 contaminants organized into six groups: microorganisms, disinfectants, disinfection byproducts, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals and radionuclides. EPA also identifies and lists unregulated contaminants which may require regulation. The Contaminant Candidate List is published every five years, and EPA is required to decide whether to regulate at least five or more listed contaminants.
Local drinking water utilities may apply for low interest loans, to make facility improvements, through the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For medical water treatment, see Water cure therapy. Process that improves the quality of water.
The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. March Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main articles: Water purification and Drinking water quality standards. Main article: Drinking water quality standards. Main article: Industrial water treatment.
Further information: Self-supply of water and sanitation. Stanford University. Retrieved 29 October Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Canada: Safe Drinking Water Foundation. Cathodic protection: industrial solutions for protecting against corrosion. March Materials Views. Wiley VCH. September Army to the civilian community". The Journal of Technology Transfer. Retrieved Safe Drinking Water Act. Washington, D. June EPA F Ground Water and Drinking Water. Contaminant Candidate List.
Eaton, Andrew D. Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater 21 ed. American Public Health Association. Outline Data Model Properties. Liquid Ice Vapor Steam. Deuterium-depleted Semiheavy Heavy Tritiated Hydronium. Consumer activism Consumer education Consumer movement Environmentalism Social movements.
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Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use. The end use may be drinking , industrial water supply, irrigation , river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment. Water treatment removes contaminants and undesirable components, or reduces their concentration so that the water becomes fit for its desired end-use. This treatment is crucial to human health and allows humans to benefit from both drinking and irrigation use. Treatment for drinking water production involves the removal of contaminants from raw water to produce water that is pure enough for human consumption without any short term or long term risk of any adverse health effect. In general terms, the greatest microbial risks are associated with ingestion of water that is contaminated with human or animal including bird faeces. Faeces can be a source of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, protozoa and helminths.
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Technical Description Desalination by reverse osmosis for public water supply is carried out in the British Virgin Islands on the islands of Tortola and Virgin Gorda. The operations on the island of Tortola may be classified into two different types, based on the source of the feedwater, which is brackish water either from shoreline wells or from alluvial well fields. A sanitary seal from ground level to a depth of about 40 feet has been installed. Water is pumped by submersible pumps to the intake of the plant.
Hitachi Group Corporate Information. Providing a total seamless solutions by connecting with digital technology, we resolve your business issues Digitally link and optimize your entire supply chain, from management to workplaces. We use digital technologies to connect entire manufacturing businesses, from manufacturing sites to management. This improves productivity and quality, enabling efficient manufacturing operations that can respond immediately to the changing needs of markets. We utilize data throughout the entire value chain, from procurement to sales and after-sales services. This enhances the functionality of distribution centers and delivery, leading to optimization of the supply chain. By collecting data and analyzing it through the use of AI, we improve the visualization of consumer needs. This makes one-to-one marketing more accurate and contributes to an increase in sales. By providing high added value to after-sales services for the manufacturers and owners of production equipment, we contribute to increased profits, labor-saving efforts, and improved operating rates of equipment. By making use of the knowledge and track record we have cultivated over years of experience as a comprehensive water service provider, we provide advanced water and sewage solutions that contribute to achieving a sustainable society.
Our mission is based heavily on constant efforts to increase customer satisfaction. Eagle Technology and Eagle AS Group are trusted partners to numerous clients thanks to reliable work execution and efforts to make our co-operation as effective as possible. Together with our clients we recognize the value of environmental conservation, and we continually develop new products with the goal of generating new and valuable resources from what is generally considered to be waste.
Complex industrial processes are influenced by a wide range of material properties and environmental conditions. These include, for example: quantity, pressure, temperature, density, viscosity, aggressiveness, degree of contamination, particle size and the type of medium to be filtered. Based on many years of systematic research into these influencing factors and their interactions, we can offer you filter systems that guarantee maximum safety, reliability and protection during the process and in the end result. In addition to standard designs, our product range also includes filters manufactured according to customer and application specifications. These numerous in-house developments are also protected by patents or utility models. Our filter systems are used by customers all over the world for safety, reliability and protection of machines, engines and production plants. The applications cover a wide range of industries, such as shipbuilding and engine construction, steel, automotive and chemical industries, power generation, water treatment and supply. We also differentiate between the different media to be filtered, e.
Our experts partner with customers around the world to provide solutions for the toughest industrial water and process challenges. Leverage our water treatment systems and technology to reduce costs, meet environmental regulations and prepare for changing demands. Film non-phosphorus technology for cooling water eliminates deposition and algae bloom issues. Tap our global network of research, engineering and process experts to solve your industrial or municipal water challenges. Are you ready to join the resource revolution? Join n early 90, employees working for the sustainable and intelligent management of resources worldwide. Learn more. Looking for a technical paper?
Water & Process Treatment Technologies & Solutions
Permeate Net Flow : 5. This rugged structure with hollow fiber membranes can be used in dead-end process which decreases the water and energy usage to the lowest and ensures a fully electronic performance of the filtration Ultrafiltration for concentration of milk or whey is widely used in the dairy industry. UF concentration is used as a concentration step in the process of making different whey or milk powder products. Also different fresh cultured cheeses Ultrafiltering systems for treating oily emulsions coming from production processes or washing plants. Systems complete with a pretreatment phase, a UF section, made of stainless steel, automatically operated.
Production facilities: planning an efficient production process and layout of a factory
We are committed to develop and turn new ideas into game changing turn key products with breakthrough technologies. Our research and development is continuously striving to create more solutions for different applications in decentralized water recycling. We create quality products to high standards and ensure these products are fully operational and safe. All other existing water treatment systems use filters or membranes to treat water, which clog and need regular cleaning and maintenance.
A successful and efficient product manufacturing process depends on various aspects. Availability of resources, the location, quality management, process monitoring etc. Essential is an efficient production layout in accordance with the different process steps from planning to packaging of the product being produced. The production facilities factsheet helps a start-up or company to define and improve its manufacturing process by looking at it from a holistic perspective stipulating conceptual planning, macro-planning and micro-planning.
PGL-PFL series gives high intensity light, and the lighting efficiency can be boosted with water cooling system. Its light recipe is very effective on growth, and was proven through many tests. It can be used for all phase of growing: seedling, growth and flowering phase.
Handbook of Food Factory Design. Food manufacturing has evolved over the centuries from kitchen industries to modern, sophisticated production operations.