A bakery also baker's shop or bake shop is an establishment that produces and sells flour -based food baked in an oven such as bread , cookies , cakes , pastries , and pies. Baked goods have been around for thousands of years. The art of baking was developed early during the Roman Empire. It was a highly famous art as Roman citizens loved baked goods and demanded for them frequently for important occasions such as feasts and weddings etc. Due to the fame and desire that the art of baking received, around BC, baking was introduced as an occupation and respectable profession for Romans.
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The Hungarians have a saying that bread is older than man is. More than years ago, primitive people made flat breads by mixing coarsely ground grain and water and placing these cakes in the sun to bake. It was the Egyptians who are credited with using a starter of wild yeast from the air that was kept and mixed with the dough to create a leavened product. Legend has it that a slave in a royal Egyptian household forgot about some dough he had made and kept aside.
When he returned, it had doubled in size. Trying to hide the mistake, the dough was punched down furiously and baked. The result was lighter bread than anyone had ever tasted. The ancient Greeks had over 50 kinds of bread. The government built public bakeries and ovens for every ones use and were popular places to meet the neighbors.
The Romans continued the idea of the public bakeries. They also required that every baker put an identification stamp on their loafs. In Roman times, grain was ground with millstones and the finest flour was sifted through silk sieves. The basic ingredients are Flour, Salt, Yeast and Water. Before we go on to discuss the different components of bread, let us first list the different types of dough. Bulk Fermented Dough: This is the process that most bakers use to prepare bread.
Flour and salt are blended with yeast and water and mixed to smooth clear dough. The dough is then covered to prevent drying out and a skin forming, and then giving a period of bulk fermentation. Here all the ingredients are mixed at once and allowed to ferment. The dough is then knocked back de gassed after about two thirds of the fermentation has taken place and then kneaded to encourage further yeast activity.
In addition, to equalize the dough temperature. The total fermentation can vary from one to twelve hours, depending on the recipe. No Time Dough: This process speeds up the fermentation process by adding an improver that contains chemicals that would naturally be produced by fermentation, given a little more time. Flour, Yeast, Salt and water with the improver are blended into a dough, but the mixing is continued for almost double the time.
Until the gluten is developed sufficiently. It is preferable to use a machine rather than mixing by hand. When mixing is complete, the dough is ready for scaling weighing.
A little extra yeast is added in recipes using improvers, as the quick fermentation does not allow the yeast to grow to its normal levels.
The extra water will increase the yield, which should pay for the improver. No time dough is ideal for those kitchens with limited time, space and facilities. Improvers also assist prolonged quality maintenance. Improvers also help make reasonable quality bread that has less gluten weak flour. Fermentation depends on the yeast content. It is best fermented in a prover or in similar conditions. The first ferment is then blended with the rest of the flour, salt, fat and perhaps milk powder to form a dough.
This is the second or the dough stage and is bulk fermented for roughly the same time as the ferment. The dough can then be scaled.
Even for basic bread dough, it is necessary to be exact to get the best from the raw material. The best temperature for fermentation is between 25C and 28C. Above 32C, fermentation is rapid but gets progressively weaker. Under 24C, fermentation is slow. As water temperature can be readjusted, it is the medium that controls the temperature of the dough, determines the water temperature and the rule of thumb is the doubling method.
Double the required dough temperature, take the temperature of the flour and subtract that from the above number. The result is the required water temperature. Therefore the water temperature should be 38C. Water is essential to bread making to hydrate the insoluble wheat portions forming gluten. Dissolve the salt, sugar and soluble proteins and form an elastic dough. Water has a marked effect on the speed of fermentation — a thin batter fermenting faster than a tight dough.
It is also necessary to stabilize the gluten, help retain the moisture and control the fermenting yeast, which in turn will affect the crumb or texture of bread and the crust color. Fermentation is too rapid in dough with too little salt, which checks the growth of yeast so more sugar is converted to gas. Because the gluten is also weakened, it offers less resistance to the gas expansion, leaving too much volume and loose crumb texture.
The bread lacks brightness and the flavor is insipid. Too much salt seriously retards yeast activity. Excessive amounts will stop fermentation. With the yeast activity slowed down, there is a corresponding of the tightening of the gluten resulting in a smaller volume.
At worst, the result is a heavy, rubber like mass with a taste of excessive salt. YEAST — is a living organism of the fungal family of plants, which changes sugar into CO2 carbon di oxide , alcohol and other by-products.
The gas is caught up in the gluten network, which aerates the dough. The second function of yeast, equally vital to producing quality bread, is to assist the ripening or mellowing of the gluten in the dough, so that when the item is baked, the gluten is in a condition, which gives evenly to the expanding gases and at the same time retains them gases.
For fermentation to occur, yeast needs a source of glucose a simple sugar. Small amounts of glucose and fructose in the dough are fermented directly by the yeast. Other sugars and carbohydrates are converted to glucose by enzymes in the flour.
Yeast must be in a good condition to work efficiently. It should be cool to the touch and a creamy color. If it is dark ad of a soft sticky consistency, with an unpleasant odor, then it should not be used. Small quantities can be kept pressed into a small bar and stored in a cool place. Yeast works best between 25C and 28C.
Above this, the fermentation is rapid but gets progressively weaker as the temperature increases until 55C to 60C, when yeast is killed. Between 23C and 25C, yeast works slowly, till at 25C, fermentation stops. It should never be mixed with dry salt or sugar or dispensed in a strong solution of either, which will kill the yeast. As a living organism, it can never be dissolved in liquid. FLOUR - there are two basic types of flour used for bread making, whole meal and strong white flour.
Whole meal flour contains whole-wheat grains, with nothing added or taken away during processing, Strong with flour has higher protein content and therefore more gluten than soft cake flour. Whole meal flours have a higher water absorption rate than white flours so the dough may be stickier. Extra enzymes in the bran coating of the grain speed up the dough ripening so the dough temperature should be a little cooler to slow down the fermentation.
Because the physical and chemical changes in the dough are more rapid, whole meal dough needs shorter fermentation. Gluten is developed in bread during the manipulation mixing of the dough, when two proteins — glutenin and gliadin combine in the presence of moisture water to form gluten. Gluten strands traps the gas generated by the yeast and holds it in the dough structure. Gluten is conditioned by many factors including the amount of yeast and how active it is, the amount of salt and water in the dough, fermentation time, dough temperature, the acidity of the dough and manipulation kneading.
Given good material and correct balance, nothing contributes to good bread making than properly made dough. The kneading, fermentation and the knocking back are also important. Proper mixing gives gluten the opportunity to absorb the maximum water and become thoroughly hydrated. The active ingredients in a typical improver would include sugar, pure emulsifier, soya or guar flour, ascorbic acid vitamin C and enzyme active malt flour.
It enables the dough to be made in bulk, retarded and then baked through the day as and when required. This ensures freshness and standard quality.
Enriched dough which ferments slowly, retard the best and can be kept for up to 72 hours. The final proving should not be forced. The dough should be cooled before retarding as a high temperature will extend fermentation before retardation is effective.
Salt will have to be reduced when using salted butter. Fermentation is slower in enriched dough, so the dough should be kept a little softer and for a slightly longer time. Baking is a science, it is essential to begin correctly with the right ingredients in the correct proportions. A number of physical and chemical changes take place during this time. If the peak of gas production in the dough is reached before its gas retention capacity is at a maximum, then much of the gas will be dissipated and not enough will be left to aerate the dough when its extensibility is at its highest point.
On the other hand if the dough reaches its optimum gas retention capacity before gas production is at its highest rate, much of the gas will be lost subsequently.
Organisation chart of Bakery. Different types of flours available, constituents of flours, PH Value of flour, water adsorption power of flour, glutin, dustiest capacity of flour, grade of flour. Effect of over and under fermentation and under proofing of dough and other fermented goods. Baking temperatures for bread, confectionery goods. Bakery layout The required approvals for setting up of a Bakery Government procedure and Byelaws :.
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Albany Packaging offers a wide variety of quality in stock packaging solutions that are ready to be shipped. If you're wondering where to buy disposable bakery supplies, we have a large selection of disposable bakery supplies for sale at the lowest prices. From traditional Quebec-style tourtiere to the Australian-style meat pies that are suddenly all the rage in Toronto, here are our picks for restaurants that are a Visit McCall's wholesale warehouse or shop online! Find a lot of cake decorating supplies, ingredients, chocolate molds and bakeware. Authentic French Macarons in Fun Flavours!
Contents - Previous - Next. The flour produced from the cassava plant, which on account of its low content of noncarbohydrate constituents might well be called a starch, is known in world trade as tapioca flour. It is used directly, made into a group of baked or gelatinized products or manufactured into glucose, dextrins and other products. Starchy foods have always been one of the staples of the human diet. They are mostly consumed in starch-bearing plants or in foods to which commercial starch or its derivatives have been added.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Automatic Bun Divider Dough Rounder Bread Roll Line Fortuna Magnus KI-6 Proofer Profiline K
Double Color Cookie Biscuit Machine is the most advanced pastry depositor it can produce one kind of delicious and interesting food. This depositor can make two colors pastry it can also make two fillings. The machine structure solves the problem of the monotony of the traditional food. This depositor can make different type of pastry whose procedure is from extruding to squeeze different types of pastry. This depositor can produce several of delicious pastry with a lot of fun. PLC Cookie Machine is the new kind of cookie shapes forming machine, which are automatically controlled. You can set the cookie forming ways depending or wire cutting , working speed, space between cookies, etc by touch screen.
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OSM currently has misleading English definitions used for the tags for bakery and confectionery shops; different than those of dictionaries, wikipedia, government, and common usage in many English-speaking nations. These are probably the result of language translation mismatches. A tagging of shops to indicate the types of goods sold would be useful, such as identifying a bakery that sells only bread as opposed to one that sells multiple types of bakery goods. This proposal fixes the bad definitions in English for bakery and confectionery.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Sunil Kumar. A word of many meanings, a symbol of giving, one food that is common to so many countries…. The Hungarians have a saying that bread is older than man is. More than years ago, primitive people made flat breads by mixing coarsely ground grain and water and placing these cakes in the sun to bake. It was the Egyptians who are credited with using a starter of wild yeast from the air that was kept and mixed with the dough to create a leavened product.
The impact of frost, heat, drought, diseases, insects, and weeds can be more accurately predicted with a clear picture of the relationships between growth stage and plant response to stress. Additionally, the report has also analysed the market on the basis of end-use which include noodles and pasta, bakery and confectionery, and the feed industry. This issue has recently been reviewed extensively Hischenhuber et al. Arthur's Baker's Companion. If you bake the ball of wet gluten at about degrees F. Add water to the flour and continue mixing with fingers to create a smooth, flexible dough. Presentation Summary : Gluten Intolerance and Celiac Disease Celiac Disease is a very specific type of damage done to the digestive tract resulting from a gluten intolerance. The highst volume was obtained with wheat flour, followed by barley, rice and corn. Wheat is grown in Kansas.
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Confectionery is the art of making confections , which are food items that are rich in sugar and carbohydrates. Exact definitions are difficult. Bakers' confectionery, also called flour confections , includes principally sweet pastries, cakes, and similar baked goods. Sugar confectionery includes candies usually called sweets in British English , candied nuts, chocolates, chewing gum, bubble gum, pastillage , and other confections that are made primarily of sugar.
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Confectionery and chocolate manufacture has been dominated by large-scale industrial processing for several decades. It is often the case though, that a trial and error approach is applied to the development of new products and processes, rather than verified scientific principles. Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering: Principles and Applications, Second edition , adds to information presented in the first edition on essential topics such as food safety, quality assurance, sweets for special nutritional purposes, artizan chocolate, and confectioneries.