Associate Editor: J. Murphy Beilstein J. The implementation of continuous flow processing as a key enabling technology has transformed the way we conduct chemistry and has expanded our synthetic capabilities. As a result many new preparative routes have been designed towards commercially relevant drug compounds achieving more efficient and reproducible manufacture.
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- The complex process of manufacturing methionine
- Organic Chemicals, Plastics and Synthetic Fibers Effluent Guidelines
- A Valuable Synthetic Intermediate
- Materials for energy storage, production & harvesting applications
- 2. Energy Metabolism – the Overview
- The synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using continuous flow chemistry
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These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online.
Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Although information is ubiquitous, and its technology arguably among the highest that humankind has produced, its very ubiquity has posed new types of problems.
Three that involve storage of information rather than computation include its usage of energy, the robustness of stored information over long times, and its ability to resist corruption through tampering. The difficulty in solving these problems using present methods has stimulated interest in the possibilities available through fundamentally different strategies, including storage of information in molecules.
Here we show that storage of information in mixtures of readily available, stable, low-molecular-weight molecules offers new approaches to this problem. This procedure uses a common, small set of molecules here, 32 oligopeptides to write binary information. It minimizes the time and difficulty of synthesis of new molecules. It also circumvents the challenges of encoding and reading messages in linear macromolecules.
This demonstration indicates that organic and analytical chemistry offer many new strategies and capabilities to problems in long-term, zero-energy, robust information storage. Mixtures of small organic molecules can store binary information. The method is an alternative to current methods for information storage, with quite different strengths and weaknesses. Figure 1. Design of oligopeptide molbits and spectrum of all 32 molbits in a single mixture.
The N-terminus is capped by an acetyl group for chemical stability. Prior to conjugation of oligopeptide s , the monolayer consists of a mixture of triethyleneglycol undecanethiol EG 3 -capped alkanethiol terminating in either an alcohol or maleimide.
Oligopeptides were grouped by molecular weight into sets of eight, representing a byte of information 4 bytes total. The single-letter codes of residues in the information region are listed above each peak in the mass spectrum see Table S1 for a full list of peptide sequence and corresponding masses, and Figure S1 for a detailed spectrum. The observed masses are for mixed disulfides derived from a EG 3 -capped alkanethiol and the oligopeptide conjugated to a maleimide-terminated EG 3 -capped alkanethiol.
Figure 2. Binary information is converted to oligopeptides immobilized on a self-assembled monolayer, for storage. A program decodes the information in the spectra and generates a bitstring that is used to regenerate the original text.
Figure 3. JPEG images encoded using mixtures of molbits. All authors edited and commented on the manuscript and contributed to later iterations. The American Chemical Society holds a copyright ownership interest in any copyrightable Supporting Information. Files available from the ACS website may be downloaded for personal use only. Users are not otherwise permitted to reproduce, republish, redistribute, or sell any Supporting Information from the ACS website, either in whole or in part, in either machine-readable form or any other form without permission from the American Chemical Society.
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We thank Sergey V. Ten for writing the spectral analysis program and Sara Fernandez Dunne of the High Throughput Analysis Laboratory at Northwestern University, who helped with liquid handling robots. More by Brian J. More by Alexei S. More by Michael J. More by Scott Morey. More by Daniel J. More by Milan Mrksich. More by George M.
Cite this: ACS Cent. ACS AuthorChoice. Article Views Altmetric -. Citations 4. PDF 3 MB. Abstract High Resolution Image. Synopsis Mixtures of small organic molecules can store binary information. Technologies from printing with ink on paper, to very sophisticated electronic, optical, and magnetic methods, are used to store information.
Research is developing strategies that use high-molecular-weight, biologically derived systems, largely based on the sequence of synthetic DNA strands.
We especially wished to avoid macromolecules that use often repetitive organic synthetic steps and that require the synthesis of a unique macromolecule for each separate message. We have instead used sets of oligopeptides having distinguishable molecular weights to store information. Overall, this system requires a set of a maximum of eight oligopeptides, as a mixture, in a microwell, to store one byte, and a mixture of 32 oligopeptides to store four bytes. Using larger mixtures of oligopeptides enables storage of larger sets of data.
These systems are capable of writing any arbitrary binary information using the same set of small molecules. In this work, reading is accomplished by identifying the masses of the molecules that are immobilized to a self-assembled monolayer primarily as disulfides from the laser desorption process using mass spectrometry. Mass spectrometry provides both high precision enabling accurate determination of the composition of mixtures of oligopeptides in a single sub-millimeter spot of an immobilized array, without separation, and with few errors and high rates of reading.
Table 1. These oligopeptides were selected to have four characteristics: i All were resolvable by mass using SAMDI as components of a common mixture Figure 1.
The different amino acids in each oligopeptide are covalently bonded, but their order is not relevant—only the total mass. The oligopeptides are not covalently bonded to one another and do not form macromolecules.
By using the set of 32 peptides listed in Table S1 , each of which is distinguishable in a mixture containing the others, we can store the information for four molbytes e. High Resolution Image. The presence of the four oligopeptides listed in Table 1 is thus assigned to bits with the value 1, and the four oligopeptides absent from the mixture are assigned to bits with the value 0. The one remaining parameter to be defined is the position of this byte or bytes when more than eight molbits are used per spot in the sequence of the entire message: this information is provided by the position of the spot in the sequence of spots on the SAMDI array plate.
The attractive feature of this method is that only eight oligopeptides allows the specification of all of the characters of one byte, and thus allows an arbitrary message to be written in ASCII or any character set of members ; by using 32 distinguishable oligopeptides, we can specify four bytes in one spot. The peptides react covalently with the terminal maleimide groups present on the monolayers of the array plate. Covalent coupling prevents the components of the mixture from spreading on the surface and allows their analysis with SAMDI mass spectrometry.
The plate, with the completed text encoded as mixtures of oligopeptides in spots ordered on the plate, is stored. This strategy for writing and reading bytes allows a small number of low-molecular-weight molecules to encode many forms of information and, once synthesized, avoids the need for further synthesis to store a new message.
In this demonstration, to order these molbytes, we use an array plate in the format of a conventional microwell plate, but a number of other formats are also possible. The procedure we use is operationally simple. The small number of molecules required within a given set such as oligopeptides need only be synthesized once or, more probably, purchased, since there are many custom commercial suppliers and serves to encode a very wide range of information.
It was written, stored, and read with The images Figure 3 are another. This process is obviously amenable to simple linear parallelization, particularly since each line of instruments could be writing different information at the same time, using a shared set of molecules for storage: the speed could thus easily be increased by a factor of 10 or more, albeit at 10 times the capital cost.
This paper demonstrates one method of encoding information for storage in molecules. It represents one of two limiting strategies for this purpose. The first this method encodes information in simple, separate molecules that are designed to minimize synthesis and to fit naturally as the molecular equivalent of existing methods of storing digital electronic information. It is not intended at least at this stage in development to compete with existing electronic, optical, or magnetic methods of storage.
Instead, its immediate objective is to provide an alternative method for archival storage that is stable for long times, does not require energy for storage, and is secure. The molecules are used as mixtures and ordered both by physical location on an array plate and by mass of the molecules within each spot of the array.
This method is designed for flexibility in writing and use, for simplicity, and for long-term stability in storage. It enables the encoding of any binary data, using the same procedures and a constant set of small molecules which could easily be available on a multi-kilogram scale.
No additional synthesis is required for each new message. It depends entirely on simple physical manipulations for sampling, liquid transfer, mixing, separation, and reading at all of its steps. For reading, it uses in the demonstration shown here a mass spectrometer—a technique that provides dramatically more information than reading charge on capacitors. In favorable cases, however, as few as thousands of analyte molecules are sufficient to produce a spectrum.
The higher the resolution of the spectrometer, the more complex the mixtures that can be analyzed, and thus the greater the amount of information that can be stored per array.
Methods for storing information in molbytes—as outlined here—offer a high density of information per location, but—using currently available plates—a density of locations that is modest. Molecular storage by this method will improve rapidly with advances in technology for spotting.
Higher density of spots in arrays and faster liquid transfer could be achieved by inkjet printing. Optimization of inkjet printers for the type of molecular ink used and speed would further increase the density and rate of writing information. We have not yet analyzed and redesigned this system for efficiency. The current demonstrations have used oligopeptides, but many other classes of organic molecules additional unnatural amino acids, fatty acids, aromatics including heterocycles, saturated terpenes, and others are also possible: the method thus has broad scope.
Although we have designed the current system for simplicity, the combination of molecular design, organic synthesis, and advanced methods of separations and analysis also has the potential to greatly increase the amount of information that can be stored per molecule and per location e.
Choosing classes of molecules for information storage that offer long-term stability, with no energy required for storage, is one long-term objective of this area of research.
Not a MyNAP member yet? Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. To date, most successful commercial products were carefully selected for their manufacturing via biological synthesis. As discussed in the preceding chapter, a large degree of chemical space is already known to be available for chemical manufacturing.
The complex process of manufacturing methionine
The use of hazardous chemistry generally helps to considerably reduce the number of synthesis steps as well as the amount of impurities and by-product generated, leading to cost-effective syntheses affording the targeted compounds in high yields. The highly explosive nature of some reagents demands extensive know-how, high safety standards, and strict process controls. We provide supply security thanks to extensive safety testing, specific installation and isolated production units. We have an expertise for the handling of:.
Organic Chemicals, Plastics and Synthetic Fibers Effluent Guidelines
We've made some changes to EPA. For precise definitions of coverage, see the applicability sections in 40 CFR Part Contact Us to ask a question, provide feedback, or report a problem. Jump to main content. An official website of the United States government. Contact Us. The regulation covers wastewater discharges from more than 1, chemical facilities.
Zhangjiagang Clent Chemical Co. We have made great efforts in production efficiency improvement, management system establishment, quality control and systemic service providing. We have established favorable partnership with many clients from worldwide. Flavonoids do not exhibit sufficient activity to be used for chemotherapy, however they can be chemically modified by complexation with metals such as copper Cu II for instance, in order to be applied for adjuvant therapy. This colorless solid is an important isomer of the bipyridine family. It is a bidentate chelating ligand, forming complexes with many transition metals. Ruthenium complex and platinum complexes of bipy exhibit intense luminescence, which may have practical applications. Chemical reagents are affected by external factors such as temperature, light irradiation, air and moisture during storage, transportation and sales, and are prone to physical chemistry such as deliquescence,mycin, discoloration, polymerization, oxidation, volatilization, sublimation and decomposition. Change, make it invalid and unusable. Inorganic compounds can be used for a long time as long as they are properly stored and packaged intact.
A Valuable Synthetic Intermediate
This scale-up and supporting regulatory experience is a key competency for BioVectra, which can be applied to additional cannabinoid derivatives. Production is on-going for intermediate-scale batches, with process validation and submission of a Drug Master File to follow. The company can offer material supply, as well as product storage services as required.
They involve a transformation of nutrients, in most cases catalysed and regulated. Metabolic reactions are often coupled together to form metabolic pathways , where one substance is transformed, through a series of reactions, into another one. This process produces various intermediates , which can act as an initial substrate for other metabolic pathways. For example pyruvate can be converted to lactate, or it can form an amino acid alanine, participate in the formation of glucose in the process of gluconeogenesis or be converted to acetyl-CoA and act as an energy source. We call this interconversion of nutrients with various intermediate products an intermediary or intermediate metabolism. Metabolic reactions in general can be divided into anabolic and catabolic. Anabolic reactions are synthetic; they construct more complex substances from simpler ones. They require energy that is consumed in the course of the reaction — that is why, they belong to group of endergonic reactions. Anabolic reactions in human body are represented by gluconeogenesis, synthesis of glycogen, fatty acids, TAG called lipogenesis , amino acids, proteins, ketone bodies, urea or other substances. Catabolic reactions involve cleavage, degradation or decomposition of complex substances into simpler ones. The energy is released during this process and can be used to form macroergic molecules.
Materials for energy storage, production & harvesting applications
Inorganic chemistry plays a decisive role in the development of new energy technologies and this Volume covers some promising modes of alternative energy production and storage that minimize the atmospheric burden of fossil-derived carbon monoxide. No one production or storage mode is likely to dominate, at least at first, and numerous possibilities need to be explored to compare their technical feasibility and economics. This provides the context for a broad exploration of novel ideas that we are likely to see in future years as the field expands. This Volume covers a wide range of topics, such as: - Water splitting, only water is a sufficiently cheap and abundant electron source for global exploitation; - Energy conversion by photosynthesis; - Molecular catalysts for water splitting; - Thermochemical water splitting; - Photocatalytic hydrogen production; - Artificial photosynthesis, progress of the Swedish Consortium; - Hydrogen economy; - Reduction of carbon dioxide to useful fuels; - Conversion of methane to methanol; - Dye sensitized solar cells; - Photoinitiated electron transfer in fuel cells; - Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells; - Intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells; - Direct Ethanol fuel cells; - Molecular catalysis for fuel cells; - Enzymes and microbes in fuel cells; - Li-Ion batteries; - Magic Angle Spinning NMR studies of battery materials; Supercapacitors and electrode materials. The Encyclopedia of Inorganic Chemistry EIC has proved to be one of the defining standards in inorganic chemistry, and most chemistry libraries around the world have access either to the first or second print edition, or to the online version.
2. Energy Metabolism – the Overview
These metrics are regularly updated to reflect usage leading up to the last few days. Citations are the number of other articles citing this article, calculated by Crossref and updated daily. Find more information about Crossref citation counts. The Altmetric Attention Score is a quantitative measure of the attention that a research article has received online. Clicking on the donut icon will load a page at altmetric. Find more information on the Altmetric Attention Score and how the score is calculated. Although information is ubiquitous, and its technology arguably among the highest that humankind has produced, its very ubiquity has posed new types of problems. Three that involve storage of information rather than computation include its usage of energy, the robustness of stored information over long times, and its ability to resist corruption through tampering. The difficulty in solving these problems using present methods has stimulated interest in the possibilities available through fundamentally different strategies, including storage of information in molecules. Here we show that storage of information in mixtures of readily available, stable, low-molecular-weight molecules offers new approaches to this problem.
The synthesis of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) using continuous flow chemistry
Journal of Electronic Materials. In this study, synthesis of Ca BH 4 2 has been carried out with a solid phase reaction in which synthetic colemanite has been used as a raw material. Three dimensional high energy spex collider was selected for this mechanochemical reaction. Calcium borohydride is one of the most valuable metal borohydrides.
Syngas , or synthesis gas , is a fuel gas mixture consisting primarily of hydrogen , carbon monoxide , and very often some carbon dioxide. The name comes from its use as intermediates in creating synthetic natural gas SNG  and for producing ammonia or methanol. Syngas is usually a product of coal gasification and the main application is electricity generation. Syngas is combustible and can be used as a fuel of internal combustion engines.
K Topological materials and disorder: vital or fatal? Fifty years ago, it was forecast that our modern society would be supported and operated mainly by three elements of technology; i. Rapid rise in the research and development of new materials has not only largely improved our modern life but also controls further expansions of the other two technologies. The research of materials, such as more efficient batteries and light chemical energy conversion materials, is urgently required.