Framing lumber, also known as structural wood, is the grade of wood used for house framing studs, Larsen Trusses for Double-Stud walls , headers, roof trusses and floor joists, etc. Its technical characteristics make it perfectly suitable when large spans are necessary. The list below outlines the different types of wood used as framing lumber most commonly used for house construction and increasingly in timber frames for multi-family low to mid-rise construction throughout the US and Canada. A constant source of confusion amongst DIY Home builders is lumber sizes, as commercially available 2x4" is actually 1. The general rule of thumb: any width listed as 2" will actually be 1.
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Wood veneerVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How to Apply Wood Veneer - Rockler Skill Builders
Plywood is made by glueing together thin sheets of wood veneer. The thickness of an individual sheet is 0. The sheets are composed so that the directions of the grain of the superimposed sheets are usually perpendicular to each other. In birch plywood board, there is usually an odd number of sheers at least three , so the direction of grain of the surface sheets is always the same.
In conifer plywood sheets, the number may also be even. In glueing, weather-resistant phenolic resin adhesive is normally used. In terms of colour, it is considerably darker than veneering wood.
Some plywood products are classified in surface material emissions class M1. Material classification includes the limit values for the emissions of building materials meant for interiors, as well as their classification.
Class M1 contains emissions-tested materials, whose emissions of impurities are within the most stringent requirements. Standard thicknesses of plywood boards. Maximum manufacturing thickness is 50 mm. Basic plywood can be divided into three main categories: birch plywood density approx. Birch plywood is used in applications requiring great strength or high quality, such as in special flooring and demanding interior linings.
Mixed plywoods are multi-purpose general plywoods. They are used, for example, as basic boards and concrete moulds for downstream products and special plywoods. Because the surface of mixed plywoods is always birch, they are in the same quality classes as birch plywoods. Mixed plywoods are:. Conifer plywoods are particularly used in construction, for example in roof structures and interior linings.
They are mostly made of spruce. The choice of quality class of birch veneer-surfaced plywoods according to application in brackets, the other generally used quality class is presented in the table below. The choice of quality class of conifer plywoods according to application is shown in the table below. Wall board board size 1, x 2, mm, nominal thickness 9 mm is non-tongued and grooved and meant as a base plate to increase the strength and rigidity of boarding on internal walls, and in so-called double-plated walls, where other interior lining material is used as inner lining on top of plywood.
The dimensions of the board are suitable for the most common mm and mm frame column spacings. Subfloor board board size 2, x 1, mm installed on tongues and grooves, nominal thickness 18 mm is all-round tongued and grooved, and meant as a load-bearing structural board for floors that are supported on a podium. Its thickness and dimensions are suitable for mm and mm beam spacings.
Roof substructure board board size 2, x 1, mm, nominal thickness 15 mm has a special structure, is tongued and grooved on its long sides and especially meant as a load-bearing substructure for felt- and sheet-metal roofs when the distance between the roof supports is mm. Compared to traditional rough tongue and groove boarding, plywood boarding can achieve significant savings in total working hours and an even and structurally rigid substructure.
The board can also be used as a load-bearing substructure in floors. The boards are mainly for protection against moisture during construction. With regard to other uncoated downstream products made of basic plywood, grooved and semi-tongued and grooved interior board board size 2, x 1, or mm, thicknesses 7. This is meant for the lining and semi-panelling of interior walls and ceilings, and is used in the manner of interior lining boards.
Interior boards are made of conifer plywood with a spruce veneer surface, and their visible surface is grooved at longitudinal 75 mm intervals with W-shaped grooves. The long sides are semi-tongued and grooved. Special plywoods are chiefly basic plywoods made for a specific purpose in standard dimensions and coated in different ways, depending on the application.
Coating can improve the wear-, shock-, weather- and chemical resistance of the plywood as well as its friction properties. Coated plywoods are usually edge-protected with coloured edging paint.
Edge protection done at the factory is meant to protect against moisture during storage, and must always be redone, if the board is put in a location in which moisture protection is needed. Film plywood or moulding plywood are amongst the best-known and most used types of coated plywood.
For the basic board, birch, mixed and conifer plywoods are all used, which are usually coated on both sides with a smooth and durable phenolic film, the colour of which is normally dark brown.
This kind of plywood is used in concrete moulds, means of transport and as interior lining board in agricultural buildings. The thicknesses of the board vary from 6. The standard widths are 1,, 1,, 1, and 1, mm, and lengths vary between 1, and 3, mm.
In addition to the above-mentioned brown film, special colours are also available. They are not, however, recommended for concrete moulds. Plywood coated in primer paint is a board meant for use in facade boarding that requires painting, vehicle bodywork, traffic signs, advertising hoardings, etc.
Birch and mixed plywood are used as the basic board, and coated on both sides with phenol-based primer paper light brown , and the background surface can alternatively be coated with phenolic film. Boards are also available ready primed. The standard widths are 1,, , 1, and 1, mm, and lengths vary between and 3, mm. The surface of plywood that has been painted does not suffer from hairline cracks, which usually gradually form on the painted surface and surface veneer of uncoated plywood.
Plywood can be treated with a flame retardant, so its fire resistance increases. The surfaces are processed at the factory. Flame retardant treated plywood is suitable for structural applications, since the treatment does not affect the plywood's technical properties.
In the installation of wall boards, the recommended board thicknesses and distances between supports are:. In ceiling lining, the recommended between fastening supports is no more than mm. It is also possible to order plywood made-to-measure, perforated, with additional or special machining, etc. During transportation and storage, the boards are protected from wetness, dirt, ground contact, sunlight, dents and scratches.
The boards are stored face down on a flat base. If necessary, supporting timber is used at intervals of 0. Storing the boards vertically should be avoided. Any steel strapping around the pile of boards must be removed if the plywood is to be stored in damp conditions. The pile of boards is covered with a protective sheet. Storage conditions should be similar to the conditions in which the boards will ultimately be used. Before installation, the plywood must be aired for days in conditions close to those in which it will ultimately be used.
A table-mounted or portable circular saw, for example, is suitable for sawing the boards. Smaller sawing jobs can also be done with a regular hand saw.
Contour sawing can be done with a jig saw. A board sawn according to the direction of movement of the blade is installed so that fraying of the surface veneer caused by the sawing especially sawing across the grain of the veneer takes place at the rear surface of the board that remains hidden. If necessary, plywood boards used in interior lining can also be ordered ready perforated. Perforated boards are normally used for reasons of acoustics or appearance.
Perforation is done mechanically and, when ordering the boards, in addition to the above-mentioned instructions, the hole size and gap between the holes should also be mentioned. Some suppliers might have certain standard hole sizes and distances, so it is advisable to check the perforation alternatives before ordering. Curved surfaces can also be made with plywood. Thin boards less than 10 mm thick are most suitable for this purpose.
The indicative bending radius is slightly less than one metre, with the bending taking place across the direction of grain of the surface veneer and the thickness of the board no more than 9 mm.
You should be aware that a small bending radius causes the surface of the board easily to suffer hairline cracks.
A bent board is always fastened with screws. The smallest bending radii of plywood. Water- or steam treatment helps in the bending of plywood. Birch veneer-surfaced mixed plywood. When nailing, it is advisable to use profiled nails and, in installing base plates for roofs, hot-galvanised screws or nails. The boards are fastened at intervals of about mm on each side and about mm at the centre.
Fasteners that will not be left visible are fastened to plywood boards at an average of 10 mm from the edge of the board.
Fasteners that will be left visible are fastened to the plywood boards at a distance of 10 mm from the edge of the board, in a straight line and facing each other on both sides of the joint. When plywood is used as part of frame structures usually tongued and grooved conifer plywood , the adjacent boards are installed so that the board joints do not form a crosswise pattern.
Uncoated veneering wood-surfaced plywood can be surface-treated with normal paint products meant for wood lining. Priming must be done with special care to prevent possible surface cracks. In order to avoid hairline cracks on the surface, use plywood that has been ready-treated with epoxy primer or coated with primer paper. When painting coated plywood, it is advisable to apply two coats of epoxy primer and one coat of polyurethane paint for the surface.
The surface treatment of interior lining boards mainly has aesthetic significance. Covering painting, glazing colouring, staining, etc.
Furthermore, surface treatment makes it easier to keep the plywood lining clean. In interior spaces, the following are suitable for the surface treatment of plywood lining:. Before treatment, it is advisable to sand the surface lightly particularly waxable surfaces. In dry facilities, plywood can also be used without surface treatment. In a technical sense, ceiling lining in particular does not usually necessarily require surface treatment.
It is, however, good to be aware that UV radiation from sunlight gradually causes top veneer to darken, which can to some extent be prevented with lacquer containing a UV-protective agent. On the other hand, lacquering in itself may cause the top veneer to change shade usually more yellow. This can be prevented by using lacquer mixed with a small amount of white pigment.
Plywood is made by glueing together thin sheets of wood veneer. The thickness of an individual sheet is 0. The sheets are composed so that the directions of the grain of the superimposed sheets are usually perpendicular to each other. In birch plywood board, there is usually an odd number of sheers at least three , so the direction of grain of the surface sheets is always the same. In conifer plywood sheets, the number may also be even.
Lumber choices for wood frame construction - choosing timber for framing & building homes
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It is also BPA free and completely food safe. Our dinnerware is functional, stylish, and makes quite a statement for everyday outdoor dining, special occasions and more. Click here for 24" black melamine shelves at a great price. Click for more details. Used traditionally in outdoor plates, melamine is lightweight, easy to carry, and ideal for travel or picnics. Melamine white-lined comes in two different substrates: MDF and Particleboard. Be sure to click here to look at Uniboard's Melamine Collections. Before proceeding to clean your cabinets, you. We have three choices of color in either white, black or maple.
How-To Clean Laminate, Wood Veneer and Solid Wood Surfaces
Meanwhile, I paid my attention to the domestic lumber including a cedar, the hinoki which had not been effectively utilized taking into consideration the current situation that came to have difficulty in acquisition of the imported lumber year by year too much until now by log export of each country regulation to prevent indiscriminate hunting and I dyed it and provided high quality of wood materials of the added value, and which has begun to wrestle in this business from thought to want to produce the products that it could be to a replacement of the imported lumber which had an individual color. A feel of texture thereby remains without a sticky impression without grain grain of wood being destroyed. In addition, it depends on the condition of the materials such as thickness, length, the tree class, but it is a big difference with the color system paint that a color remains in the wood inside as a color penetrates even if I sharpen the surface with an NC router and a woodwork lathe, a plane as rear processing.
Do you own a piece of furniture that is made from laminate, wood veneer or solid wood, but are unsure how to properly clean it? In fact, this is one of the more common questions we get from customers before they buy new furniture from our company. Considering the size of the investment, we understand the hesitation and want you to protect your investment to ensure a long life for it. In this post, we will be covering how to properly clean and protect three of the most popular types of surfaces found on office furniture. Full Disclaimer: We are an office furniture dealer and sell some of the products we review. Who is BTOD. Laminate office furniture offers a more affordable alternative to veneer and solid wood options. Creating laminate products relies on layering synthetic materials and creating a surface that looks like wood grain.
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Kinds of plywood in the philippines
Similarly, a plywood sheet's length is commonly eight feet, but some suppliers carry four and foot lengths. For many years, the standard option was lauan plywood, also called Philippine mahogany or luan plywood, which is made with an inexpensive tropical hardwood, and therein lies its problem. Plywood is made from layers of wood veneers glued over one another, while blockboard consists of rectangular blocks of softwood covered on both sides by a thin slice of wood veneer. There's a definite opportunity there. Much of the wood is lighter weight and is lighter in color than the previously mentioned mahogany species.
A Lesson in Modern Framing Materials
Once this is complete the books are cut-to-length. Our Monguzzi guillotine is state-of-the-art equipment. In this step of the process, the flitch is cut-to-width and glue is applied to the parallel edges of the veneer leaves.
As a versatile, resilient floor covering, Modular ONE is able to withstand the challenges of everyday life. High quality synthetic floors are the ideal choice for people with high quality standards and an appreciation for individual interior design. Our new vinyl with SPC carrier plate is a real all-rounder that keeps its shape even in difficult room situations.
New technology and techniques allow for higher ceilings, larger open spaces, and even cantilevered rooms. Back in the s, butterfly roofs and vertical siding made a conspicuous statement about the home of the future. But even as the Modernist movement was radically changing the outward appearance of houses, underneath, many of them were still framed the conventional way, with old-fashioned sawn lumber.
They are also used in marquetry. Plywood consists of three or more layers of veneer. Normally, each is glued with its grain at right angles to adjacent layers for strength.