Beekeeping or apiculture is the maintenance of bee colonies, commonly in man-made hives , by humans. Most such bees are honey bees in the genus Apis , but other honey-producing bees such as Melipona stingless bees are also kept. A beekeeper or apiarist keeps bees in order to collect their honey and other products that the hive produce including beeswax , propolis , flower pollen , bee pollen , and royal jelly , to pollinate crops, or to produce bees for sale to other beekeepers. A location where bees are kept is called an apiary or "bee yard". Depictions of humans collecting honey from wild bees date to 10, years ago.
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Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Online assignment topic seri culture 1. The productivity and profitability of sericulture depends on the yield of mulberry crop. It is a cottage industry combining agriculture and industry. The end product of this agro-industry is silk. The production process of silk involves a long chain of interdependent specialized operations such as mulburry cultivation, silkworm seed production, rearing of silk worm, reeling, twisting and weaving of silk, etc.
Sericulture is an export oriented agro - industry. Indian silks are exported to more than 50 countries and gains about crores of rupees each year from it. We have a unique position among the silk producing countries, because India is the only country in the world producing all the four commercially important varieties of natural silk - Mulberry, Tasar, Eri, and Muga silk. The silk industry originated in China and was kept in secret by them for about years. The sericulture industry is well established in India since the 4th century.
Only recently Kerala has got a place in the sericulture map of India. The scope and potentiality of sericulture industry is not limited in the production of silk as a textile fibre. The silk fibre produced by the mulberry silkworm and its byproducts can be utilized for many other purposes.
The special properties of silk fibre makes it a raw material for making electric insulations, tyre linings, artificial blood vessels, surgical sutures, etc. Hydrolized proteins, aminoacids and vit B? Riboflavin are extracted from the silkworm pupa. The major by products in sericulture industry are rearing wastes, waste cocoons and silkworm faeces.
Rearing wastes can be used for the production of biogas and vermicompost. Waste cocoons are the raw material of cocoon handicraft which involve the production of garlands; flowers, dolls, greeting cards etc. Chlorophyll and phytol can be extracted from the silkworm faeces. Phytol is a raw mater for manufacturing vitamin E and K. The faeces is also used in plastic industry and as feed for fish, pig, cattle, etc.
All these sideline developments of sericulture provide further employment opportunities and economic growth. They are the following : Mulberry silkworm It is a domesticated variety of silkworm and has been exploited for over years. All the strains of mulberry silkworm belong to the species Bombyx mori.
The term silk generally refers to the silk of mulberry silkworm because it contributes about 95 percent of world's silk production. Bombyx mori produces cocoons with continuous silk filament and therefore, it can be industrially reeled to produce raw silk.
Eri silkworm It is a domesticated species and is reared on castor plants, so they are called castor silkworms. The castor silkworm belongs ,to the species Sarnia cynthia ricini. Philosamia ricini Eri silkworms produce a white or brick red silk known as Eri silk or Endi or Errandi silk. The silk filament produced by these worms is not continuous and uniform and cannot be reeled properly.
So the moths are allowed to emerge from the cocoons in natural way and the pierced cocoons are used to produce Eri silk. In India, Assam is the home of the Eri silk industry.
Tasar silkworm Antheraea myletta is the taser silkworm. It is bivoltine species having two crops in a year. Indian taser worm feeds on the leaves of Terminalia and other minor host plants. The cocoons are very hard because of a hard protective covering secreted by the worms. The cocoons can be reeled into raw silk like mulberry silkworm cocoons. The reeling mechanism is slightly different from mulberry silk cocoons.
The hard protective covering must be softened before reeling, using certain special technique. Muga silkworm Muga silkworms belong to the species, Antheraea assamensis. These worms produce strong and beautiful golden yellow silk threads. These are found only in Assam. The worms feed on the leaves of som and soalu and Indian enjoys the sole monopoly in the production of muga silk in the world.
Life cycle of Bombyx mori Life cycle of mulberry silk worm involves four distinct stages, viz. The duration of life cycle may vary from six to eight weeks depending on racial characteristics and climatic conditions. Multivoltine races in tropical areas have the shortest 6. So silkworm rearing is continuous in tropical areas whereas in sub-tropical and temperate areas it is seasonal. Each female lays about eggs in clusters up on the mulberry leaves. The eggs are tiny smooth and ovoid.
The colour of the eggs may vary from white, yellow or brown, depending on the races. Around eggs weighs to a gramme. The female dies within four to five days. After 9 to 12 days the silk worm hatches from the egg. The newly hatched larva is black or dark brown in colour. It has a large head and the body is covered with dense black bristles and looks like black ants.
The body of the larva has 13 visible segments and is divisible into head, thorax and abdomen. The head consists of six body segments, which are fused together. It is provided with a pair of five jointed antennae which are sensory in function.
Six pairs of light sensitive ocelli are present at the base of the antenna. Mouth parts consist of mandibles, maxillae and labium. The mandibles are adapted for mastication. The maxillae are used to detect the taste of food. The labium has a chitinized prementum which carries a median process, a spinneret through which silk is secreted from the silk gland. The labial plaps are present on either sides of the spinneret.
The thorax consists of three segments. Each thoracic segment carries a pair of three jointed legs with distal sharp claws. All the larvae carry the charactristic larval markings called eye spots on the dorsal side of the mesothorax.
This text is meant purely as a documentation tool and has no legal effect. The Union's institutions do not assume any liability for its contents. The authentic versions of the relevant acts, including their preambles, are those published in the Official Journal of the European Union and available in EUR-Lex. Those official texts are directly accessible through the links embedded in this document. This Regulation applies to the following products originating from agriculture, including aquaculture and beekeeping, as listed in Annex I to the TFEU and to products originating from those products, where such products are, or are intended to be, produced, prepared, labelled, distributed, placed on the market, imported into or exported from the Union:.
To keep records is simply to collect relevant information that can help you to take good decisions and to keep track of activities, production and important events on a farm. Records can be about any performance of the animals, economic development, or any activity of the farmer or veterinarian. It is important to keep record keeping simple, and to keep records systematic. If records should be of use for the farmer, than they must be complete none missing , they should be true collected carefully.
The eLearning tools are designed to help to better understand what child labour is and the key role ILO stakeholders can play. The ILO participates in the IV Global Conference on Child Labour which will bring together representatives from government, social partners, civil society, regional and international organizations to share policies and experiences in the global fight against child labour. Under the framework of the SDG Target 8. The song is his contribution to the global fight to end child labour. Read the report: Ending child labour, forced labour and human trafficking in global supply chains. The Government of Timor-Leste has taken an important step in its effort to eradicate child labour in all its forms, particularly the worst forms of child labour. Timor-Leste launch the first child labour survey and the series of labour force survey, supported by the ILO. Eliminating child labour is an important facet of the ILO's work.
World Animal Foundation. Food Choices November 9, at am. Understanding how animals are killed for food is clearly not a pleasant subject.
Front cover photographs Part of a beehive lid. Early Byzantine period Mesogeia plain, Attica. Photo: G. Beehive from a country house of the 4th century B. Mesogeia plain, Attica. Photo: F. From the early s until the end of his life he studied the traditional beekeeping aspects in most regions of Greece. The vast volume of the primary material published is now a. The creation of a museum of Greek beekeeping was a life dream for Thanassis, for which he gathered material for more than thirty-five years. After retiring from the Ministry of Rural Development and Food, where he served as an agronomist at the Department of Apiculture , he dedicated his time to the realization of the museum idea, working on a voluntary basis for many years. Unfortunately, untimely death did not allow him to fully complete his work.
Я прожил с ними. Один из полицейских ударил Ричарда в затылок, и он упал на пол, обливаясь кровью. Кэти вскочила, но Франц осадил. Ричард держался за голову, когда его вместе с Арчи выталкивали из комнаты. Ричарда с Арчи поместили в тюремную камеру полицейского участка в Хаконе, неподалеку от дворца Накамуры.
- С твоей головой все в порядке. - по макушке Арчи побежали полосы. - Кажется, да, - ответил Ричард, - только шишка выросла.
- Значит, теперь нас убьют. - спросил Арчи.
Меня уже несколько дней никто не допрашивал и не мучил. Но где Никки. - Она с Брайаном Уолшем в нашем доме. Ты помнишь Брайана, Патрик учился с ним на компьютере. Он помогал мне заботиться о Никки, после того как тебя забрали. Бедный парень, позавчера он проснулся и нашел своих родителей мертвыми. Элли вышла из полицейского участка вместе с Робертом. Он непрерывно разговаривал, переходил с темы на тему, но из его почти неразборчивых речей Элли смогла понять лишь немногое.
В середине огромный октопаук с посохом стоял на груде из тридцати-сорока распростертых животных, шевелившихся в пыли под его щупальцами. Сердце Николь едва не выпрыгнуло из тела, когда она увидела, что одно из поверженных существ было молодой женщиной, бронзовотелой, с пронзительными голубыми глазами и короткими кудрявыми волосами. - Поглядите-ка на эту фреску, - воскликнула она, обращаясь к остальным.
В этот миг какое-то небольшое животное пробежало у них под ногами и отвлекло .
В своей жизни я могу вспомнить только один случай, когда ревела подобным образом, - она старалась хоть чуточку улыбнуться. - В Бовуа, когда мне было пятнадцать. Отец сказал мне, что намеревается сделать предложение той англичанке, за которой ухаживал.
Кто. - она потянулась к зеркалу и косметике.
Картину эту невозможно забыть. Людей закружил калейдоскоп красок. Все кругом до любых мелочей - дома, непонятные украшения, выставленные вдоль улицы, растения в садах, если это действительно были растения, вся многочисленная живность - цвело невероятно яркими красками.