Mechanical Engineering takes in all built structures and moving parts flown in space, which includes automation and robotics, instruments for scientific missions as well as assessing the effects of the space environment on materials. So while Electrical Engineering is centred on the motion of electrons this set of disciplines focuses on the movement of everything else: how satellite structures react to the extreme accelerations, vibrations and temperature shifts experienced during launch and orbit, the performance of moving devices in vacuum conditions, the passage of light through optical systems and the inner workings of engines and other propulsion systems. It also includes the design and operation of physics and biology experiments destined for the International Space Station or other microgravity platforms, and the life support systems needed to keep people alive and comfortable in orbit. There is no easy way to repair space hardware once it breaks down, so it has to be designed to perform in a strudy and reliable manner. Satellite structures must remain stable in order to avoid distorting payload performance while moving mechanisms have to go on operating without failure for many years.
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This glossary is intended as a practical and easy-to-use guide to common terms used in the advanced manufacturing industry. While we have made every effort to present current and accurate definitions, the glossary should be considered as a resource and not as an authoritative reference.
Because the industry is ever evolving and complex, it is impractical to include every applicable term. For more detail on a particular item, refer to the bibliography. A specific additive manufacturing technology, however, this term has gained common usage to describe all manner of additive manufacturing.
See Additive Manufacturing. The construction of complex three-dimensional parts from 3D digital model data by depositing successive layers of material. Metal, polymer, and ceramic materials can be used to manufacture parts of a geometry that often cannot be produced by any other manufacturing technology.
The names of specific additive manufacturing technologies include: 3D printing, layered object manufacturing, selective laser sintering, selective laser melting, LENS, stereolithography, and fused deposition modeling. Synonyms include layered manufacturing, solid freeform manufacturing, direct digital manufacturing, rapid prototyping.
Use of innovative technologies to create existing products and the creation of new products. Advanced manufacturing can include production activities that depend on information, automation, computation, software, sensing, and networking. Using control systems to operate an apparatus, process, or system with minimal or reduced direct human intervention.
When dissimilar equipment and workstations to produce a family of similar components or subassemblies are arranged close together to save space and time, and simplify process routing and supervision.
Workers are typically cross-trained to perform multiple tasks within a manufacturing cell. Materials comprised of two or more components with significantly different physical or chemical properties, that when combined, produce a material that behaves differently from the individual components.
The individual components remain separate and distinct within the finished structure. Examples of engineered composite materials include: carbon fiber-reinforced polymers, metal matric composites, ceramic matrix composites, cement, concrete. Wood is an example of a naturally occurring composite material. The digital control of a physical machine that consists of a series of integrated actuators, power electronics, sensors, and dedicated computer running under a real-time operating system.
Computer numerical control CNC can control multiple machines, usually when they are grouped in a manufacturing cell. This is a form of digital automation. It is the main geometry authoring tool within the Product Lifecycle Management process and involves both software and sometimes special-purpose hardware.
In general, computer-aided manufacturing CAM refers to "the use of computer systems to plan, manage, and control the operations of a manufacturing plant through either direct or indirect computer interface with the plant's production resources.
Is also referred to as computer-assisted manufacturing. This is the opposite of batch production. Synonyms include: continuous manufacturing, continuous processing, continuous production, and continuous flow process. Aims to improve product design and manufacturing processes across the board seamless integration of information technology systems across the supply chain. Digital manufacturing focuses on reducing the time and cost of manufacturing by integrating and using data from design, production, and product use; digitizing manufacturing operations to improve product, process, and enterprise performance, and tools for modeling and advanced analytics, throughout the product life cycle.
Producing finished products that can be recognized as distinct physical units via serial numbers or other labeling methods. Flexible refers to the systems capability to manufacture different part variants and production quantity can be adjusted in response to changing demand.
A term coined in Germany, popularly used in Europe, and equivalent to smart manufacturing. See Digital Manufacturing. Just-in-time JIT techniques reduce setup times, inventory, and waste, and improve products and reduce manufacturing cycle time. Synonyms include: continuous-flow production. Practice of focusing on continuous process improvement. A manufacturing practice that aims to reduce wasted time, effort or other resources in the production process.
Includes quality-related costs, direct and indirect labor, equipment repair and maintenance, other manufacturing support and overhead, and other costs directly associated with manufacturing operations. The time of actual production from the moment a customer order arrives on the plant floor to the completion of all product manufacturing, assembly, and testing. A Manufacturing Innovation Institute is a public-private partnership of companies, academia, state and local governments and federal agencies that co-invest in developing world-leading technologies and capabilities.
Each institute creates the necessary focus and provides the state-of-the-art facilities needed to allow collaborative, mostly pre-competitive development of promising technologies. An institute provides workforce education and training in advanced manufacturing. An institute promotes the creation of a stable and sustainable innovation ecosystem for advanced manufacturing.
As a part of the strategy to revitalize American manufacturing, the Revitalize American Manufacturing and Innovation Act of authorizes the Department of Commerce to establish and convene a nationwide "network" comprised of the individual Manufacturing Innovation Institutes, which can enhance their impacts and further strengthen America's global competitiveness.
A coding system of the U. Manufacturing products such as chemicals, gasoline, beverages, and food products in "batch" quantities. Techniques to quickly fabricate a scale model of a physical part or assembly.
Historically, this term has referred to the use of additive manufacturing to create the part. The term is falling out of favor to describe all additive manufacturing technologies because they are seen as being able to do more than just prototyping: i. Mechanical or electrical engineering coupled with computer science used to design, construct, operate, and apply robots. It also includes the computer systems for their control, sensory feedback, and information processing.
Where a robot is a reprogrammable, multifunctional manipulator designed to move material, parts, tools, or specialized devices through various programmed motions for the performance of a variety of tasks. One method of preparing and controlling the compliance of processes and products with predetermined quality standards. Six Sigma at many organizations simply means a measure of quality that strives for near perfection. Six Sigma is a disciplined, data-driven approach and methodology for eliminating defects driving toward six standard deviations between the mean and the nearest specification limit in any process.
To achieve Six Sigma, a process must not produce more than 3. Aims to reduce manufacturing costs from the perspective of real-time energy management, energy productivity, and process energy efficiency. Initiatives will create a networked data driven process platform that combines innovative modeling and simulation and advanced sensing and control.
Integrates efficiency intelligence in real-time across an entire production operation with primary emphasis on minimizing energy and material use; particularly relevant for energy-intensive manufacturing sectors.
A company-wide approach to improving quality and customer satisfaction—including fast response and service, as well as product. Breadcrumb Home. Glossary of Advanced Manufacturing Terms. Quick filter Filter glossary by name. Additive Manufacturing. Advanced Manufacturing. Agile Manufacturing. Cellular Manufacturing. Computer Numerical Control. Computer-Aided Design. Computer-Aided Manufacturing. Computer-Integrated Manufacturing. Continuous-Flow Manufacturing. Training employees in several skill sets so they can fill in for one another as needed.
Digital Manufacturing. Discrete Manufacturing. Flexible Manufacturing System. Industry 4. Lean Manufacturing. Manufacturing Cost. Manufacturing Cycle Time. Manufacturing Innovation Institute. Manufacturing USA. National Network for Manufacturing Innovation.
North American Industry Classification System. Original equipment manufacturer. Planning and Scheduling Technologies. A variety of software-based advanced planning, scheduling, and optimization systems. Process Manufacturing. Product-Development Cycle. Rapid Prototyping. Six Sigma. Smart Manufacturing. Manufacturing software to optimize scheduling and other activities throughout the supply chain. Total Quality Management. Bibliography CIRP. Paris: CIRP, Advanced Manufacturing National Program Office.
Gunasekaran, A. ISBN:
Often their use is required by law. Consult the Mechanical Engineering page of this guide to learn about standards used in mechanical engineering. Consult the Civil Engineering page of this guide to learn about standards used in civil engineering. Consult the Electrical Engineering page of this guide to learn about standards used in electrical engineering. Consult the Chemical and Biomedical Engineering page of this guide to learn about standards used in chemical and biomedical engineering. If you have any trouble locating the standard you need, feel free to email me using the button below my photo.
What is Just-In-Time Manufacturing (JIT)?
The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology bridges the gap between pure research journals and the more practical publications on advanced manufacturing and systems. It therefore provides an outstanding forum for papers covering applications-based research topics relevant to manufacturing processes, machines and process integration. Published papers will continue to be to a high standard of excellence. This is ensured by subjecting each paper to a strict assessment procedure by members of the international editorial advisory board. The objective is firmly to establish that papers submitted do meet the requirements, especially in the context of proven applications-based research work.
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What They Do : Aerospace engineers design primarily aircraft, spacecraft, satellites, and missiles. Work Environment : Aerospace engineers are employed in industries whose workers design or build aircraft, missiles, systems for national defense, or spacecraft. Aerospace engineers are employed primarily in manufacturing, analysis and design, research and development, and the federal government. How to Become One : Aerospace engineers must have a bachelor's degree in aerospace engineering or another field of engineering or science related to aerospace systems. Aerospace engineers who work on projects that are related to national defense may need a security clearance. Job Outlook : Employment of aerospace engineers is projected to grow 2 percent over the next ten years, slower than the average for all occupations. Growth in research and development activities will be tempered by a projected decline in employment of aerospace engineers in the manufacturing industry.
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In manufacturing, speed to market and costs of production can make or break a company. Just in time JIT manufacturing is a workflow methodology aimed at reducing flow times within production systems, as well as response times from suppliers and to customers. JIT manufacturing helps organizations control variability in their processes, allowing them to increase productivity while lowering costs. JIT manufacturing is very similar to Lean manufacturing , and the terms are often used synonymously. Following the war, Japan lacked the cash to finance big-batch, large inventory production methods used by other developed countries. They also had high unemployment and a lack of abundant natural resources. They built smaller factories, which focused on quickly turning small amounts of raw materials into small amounts of physical products. Processing smaller batches allowed the manufacturers to reduce financial risk, while slowing generating sustainable levels of working capital.
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Manufacturing engineer (degree)
Manufacturing Engineering it is a branch of professional engineering that shares many common concepts and ideas with other fields of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, and industrial engineering. Manufacturing engineering requires the ability to plan the practices of manufacturing; to research and to develop tools, processes, machines and equipment; and to integrate the facilities and systems for producing quality products with the optimum expenditure of capital. Manufacturing Engineering is based on core industrial engineering and mechanical engineering skills, adding important elements from mechatronics, commerce, economics and business management. This field also deals with the integration of different facilities and systems for producing quality products with optimal expenditure by applying the principles of physics and the results of manufacturing systems studies, such as the following:. Manufacturing engineers develop and create physical artifacts, production processes, and technology.
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Glossary of Advanced Manufacturing Terms
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Mechanical engineering is a broad discipline that applies the principles of engineering to the design and construction of machines and their parts. The modern world comes with a lot of moving parts. While it takes many hands and machines to put together something so complex as a car, those hands know what to do because of a mechanical engineer. Mechanical engineers work across a huge variety of industries conceptualizing, designing, and creating machines as well as their components.