Although messaging and voice revenues have decreased due to lower usage of traditional services and competition with free OTT cross-border services, telecoms and internet revenue continues to grow, thanks to foreign investment and data revenue. In the first half of , Viettel generated VND trillion approx. USD 4. USD million in profit, signifying increases of 7. The company has operations around the globe, from Southeast Asia to as far away as Peru and Burundi. USD 3.
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- Broadcast Media Pdf
- Radio, Television, and Digital Broadcasting
- SOLUTIONS FOR BROADCASTERS
- Information media and telecommunications industry
- Big Data Analytics
- Complete, innovative, and efficient over-the-air radio and television solutions
- Complete, innovative, and efficient over-the-air radio and television solutions
Broadcast Media PdfVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Fundamentals of IP in Broadcast Production, with ST 2110
Although messaging and voice revenues have decreased due to lower usage of traditional services and competition with free OTT cross-border services, telecoms and internet revenue continues to grow, thanks to foreign investment and data revenue. In the first half of , Viettel generated VND trillion approx. USD 4. USD million in profit, signifying increases of 7. The company has operations around the globe, from Southeast Asia to as far away as Peru and Burundi. USD 3. USD million , increases of 3.
USD USD million in , even though there were only The decrease was blamed on an increase in royalties and competition from OTT services. However, like other television service providers, they also faced a decline in revenue.
The most important legislation which applies to the telecoms, audio-visual media distribution, and internet sectors includes:. There are also a considerable number of decrees and circulars to implement the key legislation mentioned above. The Government ministries, regulators, other agencies and major industry self-regulatory bodies which have a role in the regulation of the: a telecoms, including internet; and b audio-visual media distribution sectors, include:.
Telecoms and internet internet services are considered a type of telecoms service. There are two types of investment in telecoms, namely facilities-based services or non-facilities-based services.
In the telecommunications sector, foreign investors in business cooperation contracts will have the possibility to renew current arrangements or to convert them into another form of establishment, with conditions no less favourable than those they currently enjoy. Investment in facilities-based basic telecom services is allowed through joint ventures with licensed telecom service providers. For investment in non-facilities-based basic telecom services, joint ventures are allowed without limitation on the choice of partner.
Investment in facilities-based value-added telecom services is allowed through business cooperation contracts or joint ventures with licensed telecom service providers in Vietnam. For investment in non-facilities-based value-added telecom services except internet access services , business cooperation contracts or joint ventures are allowed without limitation on the choice of partner.
In respect of motion picture production, distribution, and projection services, all films must have their content censored by the Vietnamese authorities. For motion picture distribution with certain exceptions , investment is allowed through business cooperation contracts or joint ventures with Vietnamese partners who are authorised to provide these services in Vietnam. In respect of pay TV service provision, foreign investment is subject to approval in principle by the Prime Minister.
Has your jurisdiction made commitments under the GATS regarding telecommunications and has your jurisdiction adopted and implemented the telecoms reference paper? Yes, Vietnam has been a member of the World Trade Organisation since 11 January and has made commitments under the GATS regarding telecommunications, and has also made commitments to comply with the telecoms reference paper. Under telecoms legislation, the provision of public telecom networks and services requires a licence.
There are two types of licences, namely: i a licence for the establishment of a public telecom network issued to enterprises with network infrastructure providing telecom services, valid for a maximum of 15 years; and ii a licence for the provision of telecom services issued to enterprises without network infrastructure providing telecom services, valid for a maximum of 10 years.
How are their roles differentiated? Are they independent from the government? The main functions of the VCCA are to: monitor acts which may be deemed anti-competitive or which may promote unfair competition; protect the interests of businesses and consumers from antitrust behaviour; protect consumer rights; create a healthier competitive environment for the domestic manufacturing industry; and support domestic industries to prevent lawsuits related to dumping, subsidies and safeguarding measures.
The VCCA is the general competition regulator in Vietnam and has authority to enforce anti-competition regulations across different industries, including the telecoms sector. However, the VCCA would coordinate with a specialised telecoms regulator for example, the VNTA for opinions when dealing with anti-competitive practices in the telecoms sector.
However, as of August , the commission had yet to be established, and the draft decree on the organisation and functions of the National Competition Commission was still under public consultation. If so, to which court or body, and on what basis?
The complainant could appeal within the organisation i. Individual licences are used in Vietnam for the provision of public telecom services. As discussed under question 2. Legal capital and commitment to investment: depending on the type of network e. Are there restrictions on the change of control of the licensee? Under telecoms legislation, telecom numbering or internet resources can be transferred or assigned subject to certain conditions.
A transfer or assignment of telecom numbering or internet resources must be conducted via specific auction and bidding procedures. The transferor or assignor must return the licence, negotiate with all partners, and, most importantly, ensure the rights of their users. There are also specific qualifications a transferee or assignee must meet.
The telecoms law does not expressly prohibit the transfer or assignment of telecom licences. In general, there is no express requirement on the change of control of the licensee, except for cases where the licensee is listed as an enterprise in which the State is the controlling shareholder.
This means, in general, the licensee may liberally change its control. However, the change must be compliant with the requirements on foreign ownership restriction, as briefly discussed in question 1.
Land ownership and use in Vietnam differs from many jurisdictions. Generally, land is owned collectively by the people and managed by the State. Under the telecoms law, public telecom works are granted priority use of space, land surfaces, underground areas, riverbeds and sea floors.
Locations for providing public telecom services will be granted priority at railway stations, car parks, seaports, airports, border gates and other public places serving the needs of telecom service users.
The master planning for the construction of traffic works, urban zones, residential zones, industrial zones, economic zones and high-tech zones must contain master planning on passive telecom technical infrastructure to ensure uniformity and completeness during investment and construction, and must facilitate the establishment of telecom infrastructure and provision and use of telecom services.
The master planning on passive telecom technical infrastructure in localities must comply with the national master plan for the development of telecoms and with local master plans on socio-economic development, and is a compulsory item of regional construction master planning, of urban construction master planning and of rural residential construction master planning. Any investor preparing an investment project for important telecom works related to national security, or using a location to provide public telecom services, must specifically determine the area of land required to be used, prepare a plan for land compensation and site clearance, and implement the project after the relevant authority has approved the project and allocated land.
How are wholesale interconnection or access disputes resolved? Interconnection is a right as well as an obligation of telecom enterprises. Under the telecoms law, telecom enterprises have the right to interconnect their telecom networks with the telecom networks or services of other telecom enterprises, and are obligated to permit other telecom enterprises to interconnect with their own telecom networks or services.
Parties to a dispute may submit their dispute to the VNTA under the MIC for resolving their dispute in accordance with certain enumerated procedures. The VNTA will facilitate negotiations between the relevant parties with a view to mediation.
If, after the negotiation process, the parties are able to reach an agreement on the disputed content, the dispute will be settled according to their agreement. If the parties cannot reach an agreement, the VNTA will issue a decision on resolving the dispute.
The parties have the right to lodge complaints or initiate claims against the VNTA resolution, but would in the meantime still need to implement the VNTA resolution. An essential facility is understood as an important component of telecom infrastructure wholly or largely under the monopolised possession of one or more telecom enterprises, for which the formation of a new replacement would not be economically and technically feasible.
Yes, interconnection charges are subject to price and cost regulation. Telecom legislation requires that tariffs for telecom interconnection be formulated on the basis of cost price and divided in a reasonable way between segments making up the network or service stages without discrimination between the different types of services. Yes, telecom enterprises or groups of telecom enterprises in a dominant market position, and telecom enterprises holding essential facilities, must implement a separate statistics and accounting regime for the telecom services in which they hold a dominant market share, in order to fix the prime cost of such dominant market share telecom services; they cannot cross-subsidise telecom services for the purpose of unfair competition.
High-speed broadband networks are subject to regulation in the same way as other telecommunications services. Under the telecoms law, there are requirements to share passive infrastructure such as ducts or poles. The telecom authority will issue a decision on the common use of passive telecom infrastructure, in order to ensure the requirements on competition, environment and urban planning. The MIC determines telecom charges and tariffs of public-utility telecom services and interconnection.
Telecom enterprises in a dominant market position, prior to their issuance and application of telecom charges for market-dominant telecom services, must register their telecom charges with the telecom authority. Telecom enterprises can determine charges for other telecom services outside of the above-mentioned services, but must notify the telecom authority.
Telecom enterprises are not allowed to provide telecom services at a rate which is much lower than average rates in the telecom market, as set out by the MIC.
Telecom enterprises holding essential facilities are not allowed to apply telecom service rates lower than their costs.
The MIC may intervene in determining and managing telecom charges and tariffs when telecom service charges increase or decrease unreasonably compared with costs, or increase or decrease abnormally compared with average rates, resulting in instability in the telecom market, or causing harm to the legal rights and interests of telecom service users, other telecommunications enterprises, and the State.
The provision of electronic communication services to consumers is subject to mandatory quality control for certain types of services for example, telephone services via terrestrial fixed telecom networks, telephone services via terrestrial mobile telecom networks, and terrestrial fixed broadband internet access services using xDSL, among others.
In addition, the confidentiality of personal information transmitted via a public telecom network must be protected. There are certain exceptions to the above, such as: i where the telecom service user consents to the provision of the information; ii the provision of information is for the purpose of calculation of tariff charges, preparation of invoices or preventing the evasion of contractual obligations; or iii where there is a request from a competent authority made in accordance with the law.
Universal telecom services i. Telephone numbers and network identifying codes are allocated by the MIC. The use of telephone numbers is regulated under the telecoms law, and in detail under Circular No. Following international practices, Vietnam promulgated Decision No. What procedures are used to allocate spectrum between candidates — i. Organisations and individuals that wish to use radio frequencies must obtain the relevant radio frequency use licences.
Radio frequency use licences include radio frequency and equipment use licences, frequency band use licences and frequency and satellite orbit use licences. Licences can be issued through the following methods: i direct licensing; ii licensing through examinations to select entities eligible for the right to use a radio frequency; and iii licensing through an auction of the right to use a radio frequency.
Licensing through auction or examination to select entities eligible for the right to use a radio frequency will be applied to frequency bands or channels of high commercial value, for which the demands for use exceed the allocation capacity indicated in the radio frequency master plan.
In addition, participants in auctions or examinations must be eligible organisations for telecom network establishment licences. If so, under what conditions? The current Law on Radio Frequency has some licensing exemptions for radio equipment. Accordingly, the following radio equipment is exempted from the radio frequency use licensing: i short-range radio equipment being used in short-range, limited capacity and unlikely to cause harmful interference, which is on the list of radio equipment exempt from radio frequency use licensing; and ii radio equipment installed onboard foreign seagoing ships or airplanes travelling through Vietnamese territory, which are exempt from licensing under international agreements or treaties to which Vietnam is a contracting party.
The fees for granting licences depend on the type of radio frequency use licenses and must be in Vietnamese dong. In addition, fees for radio frequency use are charged annually. These charges are determined by several factors, including: i the basis of the economic value of the radio frequency used; ii the purpose of use; iii the level of radio frequency spectrum occupancy; iv the service coverage; v the demand for and level of use of frequency channels in the frequency band; vi the geographic area in which the radio frequency is used; vii expenses for the management of radio frequencies; and viii the realisation of relevant state policies in each period.
There are multiple types of applicable fees for radio frequency use and such fees will depend on the frequency or equipment used. In most cases, there are no changes to spectrum licences if there is a change of control of the licensee.
An ERC is very roughly akin to a certificate of incorporation in certain other jurisdictions. After obtaining the ERC, to have the radio frequency, the company must obtain a sub-licence which is the radio frequency use licence.
The five most significant market participants offer both telecommunications and broadcasting services in all or significant regions of Canada. With respect to both telecommunications and broadcasting, the most significant market participants in terms of market share are: BCE Inc. The most important legislation applicable to telecommunications, internet and audio-visual media distribution activity is the Telecommunications Act , Radiocommunication Act , Broadcasting Act and the Copyright Act. All of these statutes are federal, reflecting the fact that the federal government has constitutional authority over telecommunications and broadcasting in Canada.
Radio, Television, and Digital Broadcasting
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From: Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission. All participants agreed that, although there has been some progress in recent years, current data shows that women continue to face barriers to career advancement in this field. The lack of gender parity in key creative positions e. Progress on this front is not only good for women and society in general, but it also makes good business sense. Over the next months, participating broadcasters will each work on voluntary action plans tailored to their businesses and markets to address this important issue. You will not receive a reply.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Why are TV Cameras still HUGE and expensive ?
The NIIR has considerably contributed into development of advanced info-communication technologies; the NIIR specialists perform up-to-date studies and develop advanced radio equipment and implement telecommunication projects. Design and implementation of federal-wide systems and regional networks of digital broadcasting;. Development of on-board repeaters and terrestrial stations for satellite communication and broadcasting systems;. Research and technical support of international activities of the Russian communications Administration. The Institute pays a lot of attention to the strengthening of the laboratory and production base, and their technological modernization. Automated system for project management is being built. The enterprise is also included into the registry of single suppliers of some military products. Accordingly, substantial part of the enterprise activity is related to a provision of national defense production.
Information media and telecommunications industry
TV studios, video- and sound-control rooms, TV operations centres, playout-centres, newsrooms, post-production, inspection-and-approval suites — the fields of application for visualisation technologies in the broadcasting sector are many and varied. And particularly in this demanding environment it is effectively the quality of the components used which determines that what finally lands on the screen corresponds to the quality expected by the viewer. From the recording in the studio or outdoors, the work of the director and the interplay with the post-production team, the synchronisation and the final cut — everything must function like clockwork whilst visualisation is achieved at a constantly high level.
Goods and services. The broadcasting industry consists of radio and television stations and networks that create content or acquire the right to broadcast prerecorded television and radio programs. Networks transmit their signals from broadcasting studios via satellite signals to local stations or cable distributors. Broadcast signals then travel over cable television lines, satellite distribution systems, or the airwaves from a station's transmission tower to the antennas of televisions and radios. Anyone in the signal area with a radio or television can receive the programming. Cable and other pay television distributors provide television broadcasts to most Americans. Although cable television stations and networks are included in this statement, cable and other pay television distributors are classified in the telecommunications industry. See the statement on telecommunications. Industry organization. Radio and television stations and networks broadcast a variety of programs, such as national and local news, talk shows, music programs, movies, other entertainment, and advertisements.
Big Data Analytics
Broadcast and digital communications permeate every areas of our lives: we listen to the radio in the car, watch television at home, and use the internet at work. But even though the results of the field are everywhere, the industry still faces challenges — both from emerging technology and corporate restructuring. In addition to being the most pervasive forms of information in our society, broadcast and online media are also the best at relaying time-sensitive, critical news — everything from reports on the morning commute to hurricane warnings. Penn Foster offers affordable online undergrad options for careers in marketing and business communications, ranging from a PR Certificate, to an Associate's in Marketing, all the way up to a Bachelor's in Business Management. The rapid pace of technological innovation has benefited the field with innovations like satellite radio, digital radio, and HDTV.
Complete, innovative, and efficient over-the-air radio and television solutions
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire , radio , optical or other electromagnetic systems. It is transmitted through a transmission medium , such as over physical media, for example, over electrical cable , or via electromagnetic radiation through space such as radio or light. Since the Latin term communicatio is considered the social process of information exchange, the term telecommunications is often used in its plural form because it involves many different technologies. Early means of communicating over a distance included visual signals, such as beacons , smoke signals , semaphore telegraphs , signal flags and optical heliographs. A revolution in wireless communication began in the first decade of the 20th century with the pioneering developments in radio communications by Guglielmo Marconi , who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in , and other notable pioneering inventors and developers in the field of electrical and electronic telecommunications.
Complete, innovative, and efficient over-the-air radio and television solutions
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Gain an understanding of the legal, operational and business issues relevant to the information media and telecommunications industry. You should check our general business information for additional regulations and obligations relevant to your business.
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Элли, не забудь, - быстро шепнул ей отец в уголке комнаты, - пусть октопауки действительно миролюбивы, но мы не сумеем остановить войну, если не убедим Накамуру в том, что он не сумеет выиграть вооруженный конфликт с. Он должен понять, что техника октопауков далеко превосходит нашу. - Но если они примутся выяснять подробности.