The bright, original folk costumes of Russia clothing kept traditional forms among peasants until the beginning of XX century. Sbornik was a whole group of old head-dresses. The word means the way of making the hat — assembling the material into folds on the top like a comb. This comb look creates a unique style and had a magic meaning to protect the person and to produce the next generation. The sbornik headpiece differed from one region to another in the old Rus.
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It was made of sackcloth or twill. Most often the balakhons had the tunic-like cut: it was sewn of a width of fabric folded at the weft and cut in front, with gores inserted between the back and the laps. The balakhon was wrapped from right top left and belted with a sash, a braid or a tape in front, with the ends tucked in behind the sash not to hang down.
It was mainly used for working. In summer it was worn over the basic dress and in autumn and winter over a caftan, a sheepskin jacket or other outerwear while doing some outdoor work or in inclement weather. In some villages of Smolensk Province the balakhon was everyday or sometimes even holiday clothes of the elderly people.
Armiak aka ermiak, labamakh, ormiak, riabik, sermiak, kharapai, yarmiak is a heavy cloth coat mainly worn by men and put on over a caftan, a fur coat, a sheepskin jacket or a sheepskin coat in bad weather at any season and upon the road. It became known in Russia from the 16th century. It was made of armiachina i. In the late 19th — early 20th century the armiak was sewn of dense factory-made cloth. It was robe-like, broad and long to the ankles and single-breasted, with a deep right to left wrap over, broad straight sleeves and a large collar.
The armiak was belted with a broad sash or a cloth girdle up to 3 meters long, with its ends brought together in front and tucked in behind the sash on the right and the left side. The armiak was also worn open or put on she shoulders like a cloak. In cold and rainy weather the collar would be raised and tied up with a scarf at the neck.
Not too wealthy town dwellers also used it as outerwear, made of armiachina, though. Boyars and rich merchants would wear armiaks at home only and those were made of expensive thin fabrics. The beshmet of an affirmed colour and style was part of the uniform of all Cossack forces. During out-of-service hours Cossacks could wear beshmets of any colour and cloth. The beshmets were used both as outdoor and home clothes.
Young Cossacks would put on beshmets in summer on holidays and festivities. Old Cossacks worn wadded beshmets at home. Beshmety were usually made of factory-made fabrics, such as wool, silk, reps, satin, or glazed cotton. Elderly Cossacks worn beshmets of dark-blue, black and brown colours, whereas the young preferred red, wine red, green and blue colours. The beshmet was a garment of knee-length, with the back trimmed at the waist, straight unbroken laps, hooked at the waist, and wedges at both sides.
The collar was always stand-up, and the sleeves were narrow and long. The beshmet was girded with a sabre belt, i. Dokha was made of autumn fells of deer, marals, wild goats, wolves and even dogs.
Dog dokhas were considered the warmest ones. Dokhas covered one from head to heel, protecting from frosty wind. The Dokha was wrapped right to left and belted with a sash. The collar was wound with a warm scarf or a shawl and tied at the throat.
In the 18thth cc three kinds of dushegreika were known. Dushegreika made of a rather narrow cloth cut with wadding, fastened with one hook on its top. On the back of such dushegreika there were dense fillets with wadding. Short dushegreika, a little above the waist, without lining. It was sewn of three straight pieces of fabric two for the laps and one for the back and several gores at the sides.
When spread out, such dushegreika had the shape of a circle. Dushegreika on wide stripes, up to the waist or thighs, with straight laps and pleats beneath the back, which was cutoff at the shoulder blades or waist.
It was buttoned with silver or tin buttons and silk loops. The dushegreika went together with sarafan and was spread in the same area — in the northern and central provinces of European Russia, as well as in some regions of Southern Russia, in Volga area, and in Siberia. In the 18thth it was mainly used in the urban area, among merchants and rich residents. Epancha epanechka, epantsa is a women's waist-long sleeveless breast garment of a cloak type.
In the Russian North — in Arkhangelsk and Vologda Provinces it was sewn of silk or brocade, decorated with golden lace or fringe. It had no buttons and was tied at the neck with long silk ribbons in a bow. In the 18th — 19th cc silk or brocade epancha was worn with a shirt of some fine-spun fabrics and a silk sarafan pinafore.
In Siberia the epancha was even made of squirrel fur. The fur epancha widely spread in Siberia was a festive apparel of maids and married women. The epancha was known as early as the 16thth cc. This term denoted then a cloak-type fur garment, as well as a dress of broadcloth or thick felt, below the knees and with long straight sleeves.
It was a single-breasted or double-breasted sleeveless jacket to the waist, with copper or glass buttons. The collar was cut as a triangle or a circle around the neck. In the latter case a short stand-up collar was stitched to it.
The zhilet was usually put on over a shirt, which was worn outside trousers. In villages and settlements of Russia it appeared in the last third of the 19th — early 20th cc. The traditional Russian shirt was of knee-length and had a vent at the neckband — it could be either in the middle of the chest, or on one side in case of kosovorotka. It had no collar, and yet, a narrow round cloth necklet would be fixed to a holiday shirt, with the sleeves fastened by bracelets at the wrists.
The necklet and the bracelets were made of some fine fabric and richly embroidered with pearls and gems. The shirts were sewn of linen or cotton, as well as of silk. In the folk costume the shirt was a door garment, whereas among the nobles it was used as underwear.
There was also the home type of shirt worn by boyars at home; it was always made of silk. Shirts were of different colours, but the white, blue and red were most common. They were worn outside trousers and belted with a narrow girdle. Young men would belt the shirt at the waist, whereas the elderly put the belt a bit lower, allowing a blousing in front to produce an impression of a portly figure. The shirt usually had long narrow sleeves.
For the sake of free movements a gusset was added in the armpit area. The shirt had a lining on the chest and back. Above the shirt zipun was usually put on. The term became known in the 17th century. It was worn over a shirt and under the caftan. In the boyar costume of that period it probably played the role of the modern vest. It was worn on a shirt, beneath the beshmet. In most parts of Russia in the 18th-early 20th cc zipun was spread only as a coat. It was used by peasants as everyday or festive dress in spring and summer, or else, as outerwear worn above basic door costume on a journey or in foul weather.
Holiday zipun were made of factory-spun canvases of black or blue colour, while everyday zipuns were sewn of grey or white home-spun cloth. As a rule, it was a double-breasted jacket without a collar, or with a short stand-up collar, and was buttoned right to left with hooks or leather buttons and leather loops.
Zipuns used as additional outerwear were produced of grey or black home-spun canvas. It was belted with a sash or a cord, its ends tucked in behind the sash on the sides. The zipun was widely spread in most of the European Russia, as well as in Siberia and Altai. The kazakin was an open-up double-breasted garment of knee-length, with a back cutoff at the waist and gathers behind or around the waist.
It had a stand-up collar or a collar along the neck. The kazakin was sewn of factory-spun fabrics, such as broadcloth, moleskin, nankeen, etc. Winter kazakins had wadding or fur lining. It was buttoned to the waist with hooks or bow-buttons, which were sewn on in two rows often. Festive kazakins, especially those spread in the Arkhangelsk Province were decorated with worsted and silk braids that were stitched along the collar, coat-breasts and pockets.
In the 19th century kazakins were widely spread in settlements, villages and towns of almost all provinces of European Russia. All around the kazakins were holiday apparel of young people from rich families. There were a number of varieties of sarafan. Before Peter the First sarafan was customary among boyars; the tsar Mikhail Fyodorovich also had various kinds of sarafans. From the 19th century it was mainly worn by peasant girls and women in the northern and central regions of Russia, in the Volga Region.
Until the dress-related reforms it was also popular among townsfolk. The oldest type of sarafan was closed and almost straight, i. Later there appeared the sarafan with a seam in front, or buttoned through, the edges and middle decorated with galloon. A wide bell-shaped sarafan could have flap sleeves. In the 19th century a straight sarafan on stripes was widely spread. The latest type of the sarafan, a skirt with a bodice stitched to it, was popular in several regions in the second half of the 19th — early 20 cc.
Over zipun rich people usually used to wear the kaftan. The Russian kaftan was the most widely spread garment in Russia before Peter the First. It was a push-open dress broadening downwards due to gores sewed into its side seams. The kaftan was to close the knees, and sometimes even reached the ankles.
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Login failed. Please enter a valid username and password. Welcome, , your login was successful! The Hermitage possesses an extensive and diverse collection of Russian silks produced between the 18th and the early 20th century. The industry of silk weaving started to develop in Russia in the early 18th century, prompted by the reforms of Peter the Great.
Russia: History of Dress
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The systematic study of the history of dress in Russia began in with the publication of a book by the president of the Academy of Arts, Aleksei Nikolaevich Olenin The occasion for the writing of this book was a decree of the Emperor Nicholas I, who expressed the desire to see a painting with many figures on the theme of the most important event in Russian history: the baptism of the Russian people by Prince Vladimir. The goal here would be to represent all the classes of Russian society in conditions and clothing that approximated as accurately as possible the actual conditions and clothing. Actual specimens of Russian dress from early Russian history and even from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries had not been preserved. The only way to recreate what Russians looked like in that epoch was to examine all the possible sources: the archaeological data, all manner of written documents, as well as works of handicraft and decorative art. The most reliable information that we have concerning Russians dress of the pre-Christian period comes from our knowledge of the materials common to that period: hides and leather, bast, wool, flax, and hemp. The style of dress did not differ from that of the other Slavonic nations.
Published by The Association of Dress Historians journal dresshistorians. The Association of Dress Historians supports and promotes the advancement of public knowledge and education in the history of dress and textiles. The Journal of Dress History is the academic publication of The Association of Dress Historians through which scholars can articulate original research in a constructive, interdisciplinary, and peer—reviewed environment. The Journal of Dress History is copyrighted by the publisher, The Association of Dress Historians, while each published author within the journal holds the copyright to their individual article.
Despite the fact that modern technologyare developing rapidly, people are increasingly trying to return to the old traditions and clothes. Many preschool institutions use the motifs of folk art in their celebrations and matinees. In order to independently produce a national women's suit, a pattern is necessary. Russian sarafan, created in this way, will be the most realistic and real. For more than five centuries, it was the maina kind of clothing for Russian women of all walks of life. A little later, such a suit was divided into rural and urban. Common to all traditional outfits was that for its production a pattern was required. Russian sundress looked like this. It was a long shirt to the floor, consisting directly of a sleeveless dress and skirt.
It was made of sackcloth or twill. Most often the balakhons had the tunic-like cut: it was sewn of a width of fabric folded at the weft and cut in front, with gores inserted between the back and the laps. The balakhon was wrapped from right top left and belted with a sash, a braid or a tape in front, with the ends tucked in behind the sash not to hang down. It was mainly used for working. In summer it was worn over the basic dress and in autumn and winter over a caftan, a sheepskin jacket or other outerwear while doing some outdoor work or in inclement weather. In some villages of Smolensk Province the balakhon was everyday or sometimes even holiday clothes of the elderly people. Armiak aka ermiak, labamakh, ormiak, riabik, sermiak, kharapai, yarmiak is a heavy cloth coat mainly worn by men and put on over a caftan, a fur coat, a sheepskin jacket or a sheepskin coat in bad weather at any season and upon the road.
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From our travels, we brought back to Finland local fabrics and made Marimekko costumes with dressmakers in Marimekko factory. In the piece, Marimekko is in dialoque with different cultures. Sixteen artists and designers were invited to create new works for the exhibition produced by Marimekko and Kiasma. Materials: Traditional Korean Saektong Yangdan silk satin fabrics. Arriving to Kurume, Japan.
Much has been written about the workings of communist governments in the USSR and the Soviet bloc, yet there is still a great deal to explore regarding their relationship to the everyday lives of the citizens living under them. Essays from top scholars address topics ranging from fashion and game shows to smoking and camping. The authors of the essays in this collection investigate the ways in which pleasurable activities, like many other facets of daily life, were both a space in which these communist governments tried to insinuate themselves and thereby further expand the reach of their authority,.
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In its current form, it is a tight-fitting silk tunic worn over trousers. In the s, Saigon designers tightened the fit to produce the version worn by Vietnamese women today. Academic commentary on the ao dai emphasizes the way the dress ties feminine beauty to Vietnamese nationalism, especially in the form of "Miss Ao Dai" pageants, popular both among overseas Vietnamese and in Vietnam itself. The Ao Dai was created when tucks which were close fitting and compact were added in the s to this Chinese style.