Wikimedia Cuisine varies greatly around the world, but the basic ingredients that sustain humans are pretty similar. We eat a lot of corn, wheat, rice and other simple crops. Read on to find out which foods top the list of most important worldwide, listed by annual production and average yield in The rundown: Despite its similar look to the banana, plantains differ from bananas in structure, feel, taste and use. Plantains are starchier and lower in sugar than bananas, and they are cooked before eating. Overall worldwide production of plantains have been dropping since the s, thanks to soil degradation, pests, drought and poor crop husbandry.
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Animal feeds are classified as follows: 1 concentrates, high in energy value, including fat, cereal grains and their by-products barley, corn, oats, rye, wheat , high-protein oil meals or cakes soybean, canola, cottonseed , peanut [groundnut] , and by-products from processing of sugar beets, sugarcane , animals, and fish, and 2 roughages, including pasture grasses, hays, silage , root crops, straw, and stover cornstalks.
In the agricultural practices of North America and northern Europe, barley , corn, oats , rye , and sorghums are grown almost entirely as animal feed, although small quantities are processed for human consumption as well. These grains are fed whole or ground, either singly or mixed with high-protein oil meals or other by-products, minerals, and vitamins to form a complete feed for pigs and poultry or an adequate dietary supplement for ruminants and horses.
The production of grains is seasonal because of temperature or moisture conditions or a combination of both. The grain is dried to 14 percent or less moisture to prevent sprouting or molding; the grain is then stored in containers or buildings where insects and rodents cannot destroy it. Vegetable seeds produced primarily as a source of oil for human food and industrial uses include soybeans , peanuts groundnuts , flaxseed linseed , canola, cottonseed , coconuts , oil palm , and sunflower seeds.
After these seeds are processed to remove the oil, the residues, which may contain from 5 percent to less than 1 percent of fat and 20 to 50 percent of protein, are marketed as animal feeds. Cottonseed and peanuts have woody hulls or shells, which are generally removed before processing—if the hulls or shells are left intact, the resulting by-product is higher in fibre and appreciably lower in protein and energy value.
The protein quality of these meals for monogastrics varies greatly depending on the levels and availability of the amino acids present. Ruminants in general require only protein or nitrogen sources for the rumen microbes to synthesize amino acids. These high-protein feeds supplement inexpensive roughages, cereal grains, and other low-protein feeds in order to furnish the protein and amino acids needed for efficient growth or production.
The supplement chosen for a particular diet depends largely on the cost and availability of supply. From the sugar beet industry come beet tops, which are used on the farm either fresh or ensiled, and dried beet pulp and beet molasses, which are produced in sugar factories.
Cane molasses is a residue from cane sugar manufacture. These are all palatable , high-quality sources of carbohydrates. Sugarcane bagasse stalk residue is fibrous, hard to digest, and of very low feed value.
In Europe, beets and some other roots are grown as animal feed. Citrus molasses and dried citrus pulp, which are generally available at low cost as by-products of the citrus juice industry, are often used as high-quality feeds for cattle and sheep. Large quantities of animal feed are by-products or residues from commercial processing of cereal grains for human consumption. The largest group of these by-product feeds comes from the milling of wheat , including wheat bran, wheat middlings, wheat germ meal, and wheat mill feed.
In some areas, bakery wastes, such as stale and leftover bread, rolls, and various pastry products, are ground and used as filler or feed for pets and farm animals. Rice bran and rice hulls are obtained in similar fashion from the mills that polish rice for human food. Corn gluten feed, corn gluten meal, and hominy feed are produced as by-products from the manufacture of starch for industrial and food uses.
Waste products from pineapple -canning plants include pineapple bran or pulp and the ensiled leaves from the plant. By-products from the abattoirs and meatpacking plants that process animals into meat include such feeds as meat and bonemeal, tankage animal residue left after rendering fat in a slaughterhouse , meat scraps, blood meal, poultry waste, and feather meal.
Various types and qualities of fish meals are produced by fish-processing plants. These animal by-products typically contain 50 percent or more high-quality protein and the mineral elements calcium and phosphorus.
Steamed bonemeal is particularly high in these important minerals. Dried skim milk , dried whey , and dried buttermilk are feed by-products from the dairy industry. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Basic nutrients and additives Proteins Carbohydrates and fats Minerals Vitamins Antibiotics and other growth stimulants Composition and valuation of feeds Determination Optimization of nutrient-cost ratio Basic types of feeds Concentrate foods Cereal grains and their by-products High-protein meals By-products of sugar beets and sugarcane Other by-product feeds Roughages Pasture Hay Silage Root crops Straw and hulls.
Load Previous Page. Basic types of feeds Animal feeds are classified as follows: 1 concentrates, high in energy value, including fat, cereal grains and their by-products barley, corn, oats, rye, wheat , high-protein oil meals or cakes soybean, canola, cottonseed , peanut [groundnut] , and by-products from processing of sugar beets, sugarcane , animals, and fish, and 2 roughages, including pasture grasses, hays, silage , root crops, straw, and stover cornstalks.
Concentrate foods Cereal grains and their by-products In the agricultural practices of North America and northern Europe, barley , corn, oats , rye , and sorghums are grown almost entirely as animal feed, although small quantities are processed for human consumption as well.
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Although recognized as important sources of functional compounds, milling by-products are often removed from the cereal kernel prior milling process. Indeed, the high presence of fiber in bran and the co-presence of lipids and lipase in germ are often considered as downsides for breadmaking. In this work, Lactobacillus plantarum T6B10 and Weissella confusa BAN8 were used as selected starters to ferment maize milling by-products mixtures made with heat-treated or raw germ and bran. The effects on the biochemical and nutritional features as well as the stability of the milling by-products were investigated.
A grain is a small, hard, dry seed , with or without an attached hull or fruit layer, harvested for human or animal consumption. The two main types of commercial grain crops are cereals and legumes. After being harvested, dry grains are more durable than other staple foods , such as starchy fruits plantains , breadfruit , etc. This durability has made grains well suited to industrial agriculture , since they can be mechanically harvested , transported by rail or ship, stored for long periods in silos , and milled for flour or pressed for oil. Thus, major global commodity markets exist for maize , rice , soybeans , wheat and other grains but not for tubers, vegetables, or other crops. Grains and cereal are synonymous with caryopses , the fruits of the grass family. In agronomy and commerce, seeds or fruits from other plant families are called grains if they resemble caryopses.
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Grain is the harvest ed seed of grass es such as wheat , oats , rice , and corn. Other important grains include sorghum , millet , rye , and barley. Around the globe, grains, also called cereal s, are the most important staple food. Humans get an average of 48 percent of their calorie s, or food energy, from grains. Grains are also used to feed livestock and to manufacture some cooking oil s, fuel s, cosmetics , and alcohol s. Almost half of the grains grown around the world are harvested for people to eat directly. People turn wheat flour into bread, steam rice, and make corn tortilla s. Grains are a food staple in almost every culture on Earth. A food staple is food that is eaten frequently, often at every meal.
Processing maize flour and corn meal food products
Sorghum bicolor L. Moench [ Poaceae ]. Sorghum vulgare Pers. Moench is used by various food industries, including milling, starch production, brewing and distilling, resulting in numerous by-products.
The most historically American crop is also the most versatile. Corn Zea mays is essentially grass that has been cultivated and bred to the size it is today. Originally cultivated in Mexico 7, years ago, corn is now America's biggest crop and a staple of the global food supply. Corn is used in many ways other than feasting on at the dinner table or popping for movie snacks, some you might not even realize. Image by Flickr user Sasakei. Cornmeal is made by grinding whole corn. The coarsest meal is called grits, which is used to make corn flakes. A somewhat finer grade is sold in stores to make cornbread, deep-fry batter, and hushpuppies.
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Rice straw is a rice by-product produced when harvesting paddy. Each kg of milled rice produced results in roughly 0. Rice straw is separated from the grains after the plants are threshed either manually, using stationary threshers or, more recently, by using combine harvesters Figure 1. Figure 1. Harvesting grain and straw using the combine harvester. Paddy grain left and its products after husking. The rice husk, also called rice hull, is the coating on a seed or grain of rice. It is formed from hard materials, including silica and lignin, to protect the seed during the growing season. Each kg of milled white rice results in roughly 0.
10 Ways We Use Corn
In addition to use as animal feedstuffs, cereal grains are also used for human foodstuffs and industrial products. To produce the food and industrial products, the grains are cleaned and then milled. The main types of milling are dry and wet milling. Dry milling removes the outer fibrous materials from the seed. Dry milling is used to produce such products as flour. Wet milling is used to produce such products as sugar, starch, syrup, and oil. The by-products of cereal grain milling are used as animal feeds. The nutritional values of the by-products vary. Standards stating the minimal nutritional value of each by-product have been established. Appendix Table I, beginning on page of the text, includes nutritional information on each of the grain milling by-products.
Basic types of feeds
The following list, derived from the statistics of the Food and Agriculture Organization FAO unless otherwise noted, lists the most important agricultural products produced by the countries of the world. The data in this article, unless otherwise noted, is for The value and production of individual crops varies substantially from year to year as prices fluctuate on the world and country markets and weather and other factors influence production. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
List of most valuable crops and livestock products
The nutritional composition of DDGS is different than other co-products such as corn gluten feed and corn gluten meal that are produced by the wet milling sector of the ethanol industry, and is also nutritionally different from brewers grains which are the co-product from beer production facilities. In the U. The production of DDGS has increased dramatically since , and the total amount produced in was approximately 35 million metric tonnes Figure 1.
Starch has been used for many centuries. An Egyptian papyrus paper dating from bce was apparently treated with a starch adhesive. The major starch sources are tubers, such as potatoes and cassava, and cereals. Current starch production is considerable.
She runs a family-oriented blog on green living. Agricultural products are derived from cultivated plants or animals to sustain or enhance human life.