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ProductionVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: The Cabinet Manufacturing Process - Cabjaks
Until the middle of the 20th century, glass panes were produced by drawing or moulding molten glass, and then polishing out the imperfections. In , the float glass process was invented, eliminating the need to polish and therefore reducing the labour required.
The float glass process is how Guardian's 25 plants around the world make their glass. Huge agitators crush and then process these materials into a mixture.
The result is a chalk-natron-silicate glass. After refining the molten mixture, the molten glass is fed into the conditioning basin and left to cool to approx. As a result, the molten glass smoothly and evenly moulds itself to the surface shape of the liquid tin. Reducing the temperature in the tin bath from approx. Normal float glass has a slightly greenish tint.
This colouring can mainly be seen along the edge of the glass and is caused by the naturally existing ferric oxide in the raw materials. By selecting extremely ferric oxide-poor raw materials, or by undergoing a chemical bleaching process, the melt can be turned into an absolutely colour-neutral, extra white glass.
Tinted glass can be produced using coloured mass. Chemical additives in the mixture allow green, grey, blue, reddish and bronze coloured glass to be produced during certain production floating line periods. Changing glass colour in the vat naturally means a considerable amount of work and increased cost due to scrap and loss in productivity. Thus, it is only produced for special campaigns.
The physical definitions of light, energy and heat are described by defined wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. When wavelengths hit an object, certain wavelengths are reflected, absorbed and transmitted through the object.
Guardian Glass applies coatings to float glass in order to manipulate which wavelengths are reflected, absorbed and transmitted to serve functional and aesthetic requirements. For example, designing glass coatings that reduces solar heat requires controlling the radiation emitted by the sun that strikes the earth. Guardian Glass coatings are designed to reflect the infrared wavelengths solar heat while at the same time transmitting the visible light wavelengths daylight through the glass. Float glass coatings are produced in huge quantities, primarily in 2 techniques.
One is the chemical pyrolysis process, also called hardcoating, which occurs online during glass production on the float line. Metal oxides are permanently baked onto the surface, and are very hard hardcoatings and resistant, but their properties are very limited due to their simple structure.
Guardian Glass focuses on the second coating process called vacuum deposition process or magnetron-sputtering. Magnetron sputtering deposits metal oxides onto glass perfectly smoothly in a sequence designed to achieve outstanding optical and thermal properties. Glass is sent to into a coater with vacuum chambers each designed to apply a layer that material to the glass. The material which is a metal plate that is going to be deposited on the glass surface is mounted on an electrode that has a high electrical potential.
Electrode and material are electrically isolated from the wall of the vacuum chamber. The strong electrical field fast electrons ionize the sputter gas argon. The accelerated argon ions are able to break off material from the target by colliding with it, which then comes into contact with the glass, where it is deposited onto the surface evenly. Architects and consumers are demanding greater thermal insulation of their building envelopes to satisfy economic, ecological and comfort requirements.
Guardian is working tirelessly to enhance building performance without sacrificing the natural light people desire. The motivations behind greater thermal insulation are:. Economic Building owners and managers are willing to invest in solutions that will reduce their energy costs.
Technological advances of the last three decades have produced systems and equipment that can coat high-tech insulating glass with razor-thin, neutral coatings using low-cost processes.
This technology is now applied to millions of square meters of glazed areas of windows and facades. Ecological Consumer and industry awareness for environmental sustainability have grown rapidly within the building industry.
Due to its natural ingredients and superior energy-balancing properties, glass is a key element to reduce heating and cooling costs and to achieve the goals of globally recognized certification programs for building sustainable and environmentally friendly buildings. Comfort Better thermal insulation reduces unpleasant drafts from glazing areas, without sacrificing the benefits of daylight that make people feel better and more productive.
To achieve thermal insulation properties, two or more float glass panes are combined with a spacer to form an insulating glass unit IGU. This reduces the loss of conditioned air—reducing heating expenses in colder months and air conditioning costs in warmer ones. Until very recently, the majority of IGUs has been produced using aluminium spacers. Increased requirements have created thermo-technically improved alternatives that are gaining ground in insulating glass production.
Extremely thin stainless steel profiles possessing considerably reduced heat conductivity as compared with aluminium are the most frequent alternative. They are similar to aluminium, however, in terms of their mechanical stability and diffusion capability. Insulating glass can increase its thermal insulation performance using three additional techniques:.
Gas in the interspace The resulting hermetically sealed interspace is often filled with especially high thermal insulating inert gas. The width of the pane interspace depends on the inert gas that is used. Argon is used most often, krypton more rarely. To reach its optimum thermal insulation efficiency, argon needs an interspace of 15 - 18 mm; krypton needs only 10 - 12 mm for better insulating results.
Krypton is many times more expensive than argon since it is more rare. Triple-glazing Especially for projects where sustainability certification is a priority, triple-glazing using 3 glass lites enhances thermal insulation performance even further. Modern architecture continues to use more and more glass, largely thanks to advances in solar protection glass. Solar protection glass offers:. Financial savings Solar protection glass minimizes the amount of heat energy that penetrates a building, limiting the extreme costs of air conditioning, since it costs much more to cool the interior of a building than to heat it.
Ecological benefits Energy is saved by reducing the amount of cooling power use or reducing the phases of artificial light — helping to reduce human impact on the environment. Comfort Solar energy can be leading cause of overheated room, which make occupants uncomfortable.
Therefore it is essential to master the essential parameters of the sun protection using glass to create a functional and comfortable interior. Sound is normally transported both through the air and through solid objects. The intensity of the variability in pressure is called sound pressure, and can be extremely variable, from the ticking of a clock to the crack of a gunshot.
Three methods are used to control a wide variety of sounds:. Pane thickness The rule of thumb is that generally the thicker the pane per surface unit is, the greater the noise reduction.
Therefore, insulation efficiency increases as glass thickness rises. Insulating structure Double or triple insulating glass is a mass-spring-mass system: both outer panes masses are separated from each other by the air or gas that fills the interspace.
The interspace muffles the vibrations from the outer pane before they reach the inner, second pane, with the rule being the bigger the interspace, the more effective the noise reduction.
But this is only possible to a limited degree, since this process also reduces thermal insulation. Lamination The noise-reducing effect of thicker, heavier glass may be further optimized by using a flexible interlayer PVB to connect two single panes of glass.
A component must be reliable if it is going to be safe to use. Glass manufacturers recognized this fact more than years ago, and apply this principle to glass manufacturing today. A wide range of safety glass is available that is used either individually or in combination with other types of glass in building construction.
The three main types of glass are tempered safety glass, laminated safety glass and heat-strengthened glass. Fully tempered glass Four to five times greater tensile strength than annealed glass of the same thickness and can therefore handle much higher suction or blunt impact forces.
Fully tempered glass is resistant to shocks from soft, deformable objects like the human body, At 6 mm thick, fully tempered glass glass is especially suitable for use in large surface glass applications in gyms and sports halls.
Heat-soaked tempered glass In each basic glass there are extremely low quantities of nickel sulphide NiS crystals that are inevitably introduced into the glass via the raw materials. When heat is later applied through solar energy absorption, for example, this crystal structure may change because the volume of the crystals to increase, and this may cause the glass to suddenly burst apart as soon as the particles exceed a critical size. All safety relevant glazing and panes such as facade glass, that are going to be exposed to high temperature alterations must be subjected to the additional heat-soak test.
Laminated safety glass Laminated safety glass is a key component in modern architecture. The permanent connection of two or more single pane glasses with sticky, elastic, highly tear-resistant polyvinyl-butyralfoils PVB makes a multi-functional element from the glass, which can handle high static forces and constructive tasks in addition to its given transparency.
The safety effect of laminated safety glass is based on the extremely high tensile strength of the PVB interlayer and its excellent adhesion to the adjacent glass surface. In terms of mechanical stress such as shock, impact or influence from other forces breaking the glass, though, the fragments adhere to the PVB layer, so that the laminated safety glass will usually retain its stability under load.
This leaves the glazed opening closed, which sharply reduces the risk of injury due to chips adhering. Depending on the use of laminated safety glass, multiple PVB interlayers can be placed between two glass in order to meet needs that have tougher requirements. This has drastically changed in the last three decades. Today glass itself forms and shapes the space and creates room enclosures, thus creating transparent architecture that allows people to feel close to nature.
Screen-Print technique The screen-print which is mainly dedicated for painting partial areas and used for specific design colour which joins firmly with the glass surface and coating in the following tempering process. This technology is adopted for larger quantities and is ideal for parapet glasses components is less suitable for larger areas and homogeneous painting. From etching and shot blasting over the ceramic screenprint up to laminated glass with inside foils, the design can be a decorative ornament or symbol or also an all over illustration or matting.
Screen-print directly onto the glass The one colour screen-print directly onto the glass has a long tradition. The enamel or ceramic paint which is a mixture of small milled glass and joining colour pigments is pressed with a scraper through the open parts of the sieve onto the glass. Transfer colour print on glass The transfer print offers an alternative to achieve a multi colour print instead of the single colour screen-print.
Also enamel and ceramic colours can be transferred via digital print on transfer foils and can thus reproduce multi colour motives. These printed foils will then be fixed on glasses that are going to be tempered. During the tempering process these transfer foils will burn residue-free and the painted colours will join as previously described.
Coloured foils in laminated glass Within the same lamination process exists a large pallet of different colour foils , which can be combined of to achieve each imaginable color in laminated glass.
Bent architectural glass Architects and designers love to interrupt straightness, corners and curves with soft curves. In the applications of the building envelope, glass is generally bent through a thermal gravity process. After having reached the softening point the pane descends through gravity slowly into the bending mould and adopts its shape. The following cooling down defines the shape of the glass.
Slow cooling, free from residual stress, produces a glass which can be further processed, whereas fast cooling creates a partial or fully tempered glass which is not applicable for further processing.
Utility and special glass can be found in the office or home, in laboratories, and on the digital highway. There are many different applications for utility and special glass, such as glass ceramic plates for induction and electric ovens that tolerate high temperature differences. Hardened ceramic glass can withstand temperature differences of up to degrees Celsius thanks to special additives and the right ratio of raw materials used to make the glass. Transparent ceramic glass can even combine coloured coatings on the underside with surface decors, in order to give the cooktops an exclusive look. These transparent cooktops can also have integrated function displays. Many home roofs have photovoltaic modules made from special glass to generate solar power.
glass and glazing
Bathroom Fixtures. Introduction to Construction Project Management. Learn everything about building construction. Glass has been a fascinating material to humankind since it was first made in about BC. At first thought to possess magical properties, glass has come a long way. It is one of the most versatile and oldest materials in the building industry. From its humble beginnings as a window pane in luxury houses of Pompeii to sophisticated structural members in new age buildings, its role in architecture has evolved over the years.
Glass Factory In Riyadh
Digitalization with the range of Digital Enterprise solutions is offering you significant advantages in this respect - starting with product design, through production planning, production engineering, and production, all the way to service. Our innovative automation solutions for flat glass and hollow glass support you in becoming a digital enterprise. Siemens supplies optimized solutions for the entire electrical equipment in flat glass production. While process automation is most important during raw material preparation and in the furnace process, starting with the forming process, drive technology and precise motion control play an important role. When forming the flat glass, top rollers determine the thickness of the glass as well as the width of the usable glass area. We are offering optimized solutions for the top roller system drive and positioning axes.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: See How Window Glass Is Made The Artisinal Way
Our plant is the largest glass container plant in the Southern Federal District of Russia and one of the largest in Europe. The latest technology allows us to produce glassware of the highest quality, reduce costs and offer our customers a full range of both standard and exclusive products. Our production workshops:. The latest air filtration systems used, in which the surface area of the filters is 3 times larger that of ordinary ones. The degree of purification reaches The system of cleaning and filtering air returns all captured fine fractions of raw materials back to the process, ensuring healthy working conditions for staff and preventing dust emissions into the atmosphere of the city. The batch house is designed to prepare tons of batch per day. Today it is the largest batch house in Russia. Innovative solutions for thermal insulation have been applied in the construction of our furnaces. The project was developed by the Czech company Teplotechna-Prima.
Siemens ingenuity for life.
Saint-Gobain designs, manufactures and distributes materials and solutions which are key ingredients in the wellbeing of each of us and the future of all. They can be found everywhere in our living places and our daily life: in buildings, transportation, infrastructure and in many industrial applications. A key ingredient in the wellbeing of each of us and the future of all. They provide comfort, performance and safety while addressing the challenges of sustainable construction, resource efficiency and climate change.
Glass is one of the most useful materials in the world. Few manufactured substances add as much to modern living as does glass. Yet few products are made of such inexpensive raw materials. Glass is made chiefly from silica sand silica, also called silicon dioxide , soda ash sodium carbonate , and limestone calcium carbonate. Glass has countless uses. Food is preserved in glass jars. People drink from glass containers called glasses. Windows in homes, schools, and office buildings are glass.
Last updated: December 31, N ow you see it, now you don't. Glass is a bit of a riddle. It's hard enough to protect us, but it shatters with incredible ease. It's made from opaque sand, yet it's completely transparent. And, perhaps most surprisingly of all, it behaves like a solid material You can find glass wherever you look: most rooms in your home will have a glass window and, if not that, perhaps a glass mirror Glass is one of the world's oldest and most versatile human-created materials. Let's find out some more about it. Photo: Glass riddle: How does something transparent to light appear colored?
Glass production involves two main methods — the float glass process that produces sheet glass, and glassblowing that produces bottles and other containers. Broadly, modern glass container factories are three-part operations: the batch house , the hot end , and the cold end. The batch house handles the raw materials; the hot end handles the manufacture proper—the forehearth, forming machines, and annealing ovens; and the cold end handles the product-inspection and packaging equipment. Batch processing is one of the initial steps of the glass-making process. The batch house simply houses the raw materials in large silos fed by truck or railcar and holds anywhere from 1—5 days of material. Whether automated or manual, the batch house measures, assembles, mixes, and delivers the glass raw material recipe batch via an array of chutes, conveyors, and scales to the furnace. The batch enters the furnace at the 'dog house' or 'batch charger'.
Polished cast mirror glass and drawn window glass were the most common types of glass used in houses in the s and early s, until the rise of double glazing. The British glass manufacturer Pilkington developed a new production process to create glass with a smooth and uniform surface, called float glass. The first example of double vitrage in an apartment building in Brussels was published in the architectural press.
Glass Factory In Riyadh. We provide beautiful gifts, cakes, chocolates, and flowers to customers in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, as well as other cities in the region. You think Riyadh is just plain deserted area?
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