Solid fats are widely used to provide a desired texture in structured food products such as margarine and spreads. The hydrogenation process can produce solid fats from vegetable oils that are liquid at room temperature, and partially hydrogenated vegetable oil has been a common ingredient in food products. However, trans fats generated during partial hydrogenation are known to increase the risk of coronary heart disease by raising the level of bad cholesterol low-density lipoprotein, LDL and lowering the level of good cholesterol high-density lipoprotein, HDL. Palm oil, coconut oil, fully hydrogenated vegetable oils, and their modified oils have become the most popular alternatives to trans fats in the food industry.
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- What’s Wrong with Industrial Oils?
- Are Vegetable and Seed Oils Bad for Your Health?
- Vegetable Oil Wastes
- DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMODITIES
- Microencapsulated Vegetable Oil Powder
- Vegetable oils: global consumption by oil type 2013/14 to 2018/2019
- Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective
- Latest News
- List of vegetable oils
What’s Wrong with Industrial Oils?VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Nina Teicholz - Vegetable Oils: The Untold Story and the US Dietary Guidelines
Vegetable oils , or vegetable fats , are oils extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits. Like animal fats , vegetable fats are mixtures of triglycerides. Olive oil , palm oil , and rice bran oil are examples of fats from other parts of fruits. In common usage, vegetable oil may refer exclusively to vegetable fats which are liquid at room temperature.
Oils extracted from plants have been used since ancient times and in many cultures. As an example, in a 4,year-old kitchen unearthed in Indiana's Charlestown State Park , archaeologist Bob McCullough of Indiana University-Purdue University Fort Wayne found evidence that large slabs of rock were used to crush hickory nuts and the oil was then extracted with boiling water. In addition to use as food, fats and oils both vegetable and mineral have long been used as fuel, typically in lamps which were a principal source of illumination in ancient times.
Oils may have been used for lubrication, but there is no evidence for this. Vegetable oils were probably more valuable as food and lamp-oil; Babylonian mineral oil was known to be used as fuel, but there are no references to lubrication. Pliny the Elder reported that fats such as lard were used to lubricate the axles of carts. Many vegetable oils are consumed directly, or indirectly as ingredients in food — a role that they share with some animal fats , including butter , ghee , lard , and schmaltz.
The oils serve a number of purposes in this role:. Oils for this purpose must have a high flash point. Such oils include the major cooking oils — soybean , rapeseed , canola , sunflower , safflower , peanut , cottonseed , etc. Tropical oils, such as coconut , palm , and rice bran oils, are particularly valued in Asian cultures for high-temperature cooking, because of their unusually high flash points.
Unsaturated vegetable oils can be transformed through partial or complete " hydrogenation " into oils of higher melting point. The hydrogenation process involves " sparging " the oil at high temperature and pressure with hydrogen in the presence of a catalyst , typically a powdered nickel compound.
As each carbon-carbon double-bond is chemically reduced to a single bond, two hydrogen atoms each form single bonds with the two carbon atoms. The elimination of double bonds by adding hydrogen atoms is called saturation ; as the degree of saturation increases, the oil progresses toward being fully hydrogenated. An oil may be hydrogenated to increase resistance to rancidity oxidation or to change its physical characteristics. As the degree of saturation increases, the oil's viscosity and melting point increase.
The use of hydrogenated oils in foods has never been completely satisfactory. Because the center arm of the triglyceride is shielded somewhat by the end fatty acids, most of the hydrogenation occurs on the end fatty acids, thus making the resulting fat more brittle. Partially hydrogenated oils and their trans fats have been linked to an increased risk of mortality from coronary heart disease ,  among other increased health risks.
In the US, the Standard of Identity for a product labeled as "vegetable oil margarine" specifies only canola, safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, or peanut oil may be used. Many vegetable oils are used to make soaps, skin products, candles, perfumes and other personal care and cosmetic products. Some oils are particularly suitable as drying oils , and are used in making paints and other wood treatment products. Dammar oil a mixture of linseed oil and dammar resin , for example, is used almost exclusively in treating the hulls of wooden boats.
Vegetable oils are increasingly being used in the electrical industry as insulators as vegetable oils are not toxic to the environment, biodegradable if spilled and have high flash and fire points.
However, vegetable oils are less stable chemically, so they are generally used in systems where they are not exposed to oxygen , and they are more expensive than crude oil distillate. Synthetic tetraesters, which are similar to vegetable oils but with four fatty acid chains compared to the normal three found in a natural ester, are manufactured by Fischer esterification.
Tetraesters generally have high stability to oxidation and have found use as engine lubricants. One limiting factor in industrial uses of vegetable oils is that all such oils are susceptible to becoming rancid. Oils that are more stable, such as ben oil or mineral oil , are thus preferred for industrial uses.
Castor oil has numerous industrial uses, owing to the presence of hydroxyl group on the fatty acid. Castor oil is a precursor to Nylon Vegetable oil is used in the production of some pet foods. AAFCO  defines vegetable oil, in this context, as the product of vegetable origin obtained by extracting the oil from seeds or fruits which are processed for edible purposes. Vegetable oils are also used to make biodiesel , which can be used like conventional diesel. Some vegetable oil blends are used in unmodified vehicles but straight vegetable oil , also known as pure plant oil, needs specially prepared vehicles which have a method of heating the oil to reduce its viscosity.
The use of vegetable oils as alternative energy is growing and the availability of biodiesel around the world is increasing. The production process of vegetable oil involves the removal of oil from plant components, typically seeds. This can be done via mechanical extraction using an oil mill or chemical extraction using a solvent.
The extracted oil can then be purified and, if required, refined or chemically altered. Oils can be removed via mechanical extraction, termed "crushing" or "pressing. Oilseed presses are commonly used in developing countries, among people for whom other extraction methods would be prohibitively expensive; the ghani is primarily used in India.
The processing of vegetable oil in commercial applications is commonly done by chemical extraction, using solvent extracts, which produces higher yields and is quicker and less expensive. The most common solvent is petroleum-derived hexane. This technique is used for most of the "newer" industrial oils such as soybean and corn oils.
Supercritical carbon dioxide can be used as a non-toxic alternative to other solvents. Oils may be partially hydrogenated to produce various ingredient oils. Lightly hydrogenated oils have very similar physical characteristics to regular soy oil, but are more resistant to becoming rancid. Hardening vegetable oil is done by raising a blend of vegetable oil and a catalyst in near-vacuum to very high temperatures, and introducing hydrogen.
This causes the carbon atoms of the oil to break double-bonds with other carbons, each carbon forming a new single-bond with a hydrogen atom. Adding these hydrogen atoms to the oil makes it more solid, raises the smoke point , and makes the oil more stable. Hydrogenated vegetable oils differ in two major ways from other oils which are equally saturated. During hydrogenation, it is easier for hydrogen to come into contact with the fatty acids on the end of the triglyceride, and less easy for them to come into contact with the center fatty acid.
This makes the resulting fat more brittle than a tropical oil; soy margarines are less "spreadable". Hydrogenated oils, especially partially hydrogenated oils with their higher amounts of trans fatty acids, are increasingly thought to be unhealthy. The water immediately is converted to steam, which bubbles through the oil, carrying with it any chemicals which are water-soluble. The steam sparging removes impurities that can impart unwanted flavors and odors to the oil.
Deodorization is key to the manufacture of vegetable oils. Nearly all soybean, corn, and canola oils found on supermarket shelves go through a deodorization stage that removes trace amounts of odors and flavors, and lightens the color of the oil.
People can breathe in vegetable oil mist in the workplace. The U. Typical productivity of some oil crops, measured in tons t of oil produced per hectare ha of land per year yr. Oil palm is by far the highest yielding crop, capable of producing about 4 tons of palm oil per hectare per year. The following triglyceride vegetable oils account for almost all worldwide production, by volume. All are used as both cooking oils and as SVO or to make biodiesel.
Note that these figures include industrial and animal feed use. The majority of European rapeseed oil production is used to produce biodiesel, or used directly as fuel in diesel cars which may require modification to heat the oil to reduce its higher viscosity. The suitability of the fuel should come as little surprise, as Rudolf Diesel originally designed his engine to run on peanut oil.
Such oils have been part of human culture for millennia. Poppy seed, rapeseed, linseed, almond oil, sesame seed, safflower, and cottonseed were used since at least the bronze age throughout the Middle East and Central Asia. Ginning mills were happy to have someone haul away the cotton seeds. The extracted oil was refined and partially hydrogenated to give a solid at room temperature and thus mimic natural lard, and can it under nitrogen gas. Soybeans were an exciting new crop from China in the s.
Soy was protein-rich, and the medium viscosity oil was high in polyunsaturates. Henry Ford established a soybean research laboratory, developed soybean plastics and a soy-based synthetic wool, and built a car "almost entirely" out of soybeans. In the mids, Canadian researchers developed a low-erucic-acid rapeseed cultivar. Because the word "rape" was not considered optimal for marketing, they coined the name "canola" from "Canada Oil low acid".
Food and Drug Administration approved use of the canola name in January ,  and U. Canola oil is lower in saturated fats, and higher in monounsaturates. Canola is very thin unlike corn oil and flavorless unlike olive oil , so it largely succeeds by displacing soy oil, just as soy oil largely succeeded by displacing cottonseed oil. A large quantity of used vegetable oil is produced and recycled, mainly from industrial deep fryers in potato processing plants, snack food factories and fast food restaurants.
Recycled oil has numerous uses, including use as a direct fuel , as well as in the production of biodiesel , soap, animal feed , pet food, detergent, and cosmetics. It is traded as the commodity, yellow grease.
Since , an increasing number of European Union countries have prohibited the inclusion of recycled vegetable oil from catering in animal feed. Used cooking oils from food manufacturing, however, as well as fresh or unused cooking oil, continue to be used in animal feed. Due to their susceptibility to oxidation from the exposure to oxygen, heat and light, resulting in the formation of oxidation products, such as peroxides and hydroperoxides , plant oils rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids have a limited shelf-life.
In Canada, palm oil is one of five vegetable oils, along with palm kernel oil, coconut oil, peanut oil, and cocoa butter, which must be specifically named in the list of ingredients for a food product.
From December , all food products produced in the European Union were legally required to indicate the specific vegetable oil used in their manufacture, following the introduction of the Food Information to Consumers Regulation. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Vegetable oil disambiguation.
Olive oil. See also: Cooking oil. Main article: Vegetable oil fuel. For a more comprehensive list, see List of vegetable oils. Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry.
Handbook of Hydrocarbon and Lipid Microbiology pp Cite as. Vegetable oil wastes that are made of plant residues and oils and discarded after use pose a significant disposal problem in many parts of the world. Several plants provide oil from nutritional needs olive, palm, soybean, rapeseed, sunflower seed, and peanut , but, in particular, olive oil extraction produces a large quantity of wastes as residues. Such wastes are characterized by high salinity, low pH values, high contents in phenol derivates and organic matter, and nutrients. Hence correct treatments are required to limit their impact on the environment. The use of microbial communities for the degradation aerobic or anaerobic of organic matter is one of the most frequently used methods.
Are Vegetable and Seed Oils Bad for Your Health?
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Vegetable Oil Wastes
Current estimates of the petroleum industry indicate that global oil reserves will be exhausted at our current increasing rate of consumption by the year In more and more sectors of the industry, renewable resources are replacing petroleum for economic and environmental reasons. As a result, the importance of vegetable oils and fats is increasing and their potential as a lasting fuel source is far from being exhausted. Vegetable oils and fats are divided into pulp oils and fats e. Fat-producing plants grow mainly along the Earth's sunbelt. Higher amounts of energy, derived from the sun through photosynthesis, are required for the biosynthesis of the fat.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: What Effect Does Vegetable Oil Have On Plants?
DEFINITION AND CLASSIFICATION OF COMMODITIES
Canola oil makes a great lubricant for machinery. And seed oils are currently being studied as alternatives to nonrenewable petroleum products for everything from fueling cars to making plastic to formulating printer ink. Human consumption. Americans used to cook with lard and butter: they were cheap, widely available, and tasty.
Global Vegetable Oil Market to Reach Vegetable oil is a natural oil that is extracted from the seeds, nuts and fruits of plants. It serves as a source of nutrients and industrial raw materials to mankind. Vegetable oil is today found in absolutely everything from food and household products, to make-up products and cosmetics. In the food industry, vegetable oil is used as a cooking oil and as a constituent to margarine, non-dairy creamers and ice cream. It is also used in products where animal fats are deplorable on religious grounds. Moreover, the fatty acids derived from vegetable oil are also used in the production of cosmetics, bactericides and pharmaceuticals. Traditionally, the non-food uses of vegetable oil have been in the manufacturing of soaps, detergents as well as in the production of greases, lubricants and candles. Lately, the biofuel market has provided a significant non-food use for vegetable oil where it is considered as an alternative to mineral oil for use in power stations and as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel. As a result, the global vegetable oil market is growing at a healthy pace. Several other factors strengthening the demand for vegetable oil include population growth, improving living standards, changing dietary habits and an increasing demand particularly in emerging countries.
Microencapsulated Vegetable Oil Powder
Oils of plant origin have been predominantly used for food-based applications. Plant oils not only represent a non-polluting renewable resource but also provide a wide diversity in fatty acids FAs composition with diverse applications. Besides being edible, they are now increasingly being used in industrial applications such as paints, lubricants, soaps, biofuels etc. In addition, plants can be engineered to produce fatty acids which are nutritionally beneficial to human health. Thus these oils have potential to 1 substitute ever increasing demand of non -renewable petroleum sources for industrial application and 2 also spare the marine life by providing an alternative source to nutritionally and medically important long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids or 'Fish oil'.
Vegetable oils: global consumption by oil type 2013/14 to 2018/2019
Whether you want to set up small oil mills in villages or towns, or you want to set up edible oil production enterprises that can supply the whole country, we can provide you with corresponding solutions. Panjiva uses over 30 international data sources to help you find qualified vendors of Mexican edible oil. These batching stages are Degumming, Neutralizing, Decolorization and Deodorization. The beginning days of setting up your cooking oil manufacturing plant should be spent conducting market research, benchmarking your rivals, seeking the necessary capital to start the plant. PU foam can match our sitting posture pret. For instance, in the United States of America alone, there is an annual production averaging more than 16 billion pounds. High quality refined oil can be used for edible or industrial use. It should be noted that the final cost will be decieded by many aspects.
Vegetable Oil: Nutritional and Industrial Perspective
Most mainstream health professionals consider them healthy, but vegetable oils may cause health problems. Their health effects vary depending on what fatty acids they contain, what plants they are extracted from, and how they are processed.
FEDIOL , the EU vegetable oil and proteinmeal industry association, represents the interests of the European oilseed crushers, vegetable oil refiners and bottlers. With about facilities in Europe, the sector provides 20, direct employments.
List of vegetable oils
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