The first commercial plantations were in Granada. The Tree yields two spices, nutmeg which is the kernel of the seed, and mace which is the net like crimson coloured leathery outer growth aril covering he shell of the seed. Nutmeg and mace are the fruits of a spreading evergreen tree that grows to a height of 20m. The tree requires a deep, well-drained loamy sandy soil.
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Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter.
The California nutmeg, Torreya californica , has a seed of similar appearance, but is not closely related to Myristica fragans , and is not used as a spice. If consumed in amounts exceeding its typical use as a spice, nutmeg powder may produce allergic reactions , cause contact dermatitis , or have psychoactive effects.
Nutmeg is the spice made by grinding the seed of the fragrant nutmeg Myristica fragrans tree into powder. The spice has a distinctive pungent fragrance and a warm slightly sweet taste; it is used to flavor many kinds of baked goods, confections, puddings , potatoes, meats, sausages, sauces, vegetables, and such beverages as eggnog. The seeds are dried gradually in the sun over a period of six to eight weeks.
During this time the nutmeg shrinks away from its hard seed coat until the kernels rattle in their shells when shaken. The shell is then broken with a wooden club and the nutmegs are picked out. Dried nutmegs are grayish brown ovals with furrowed surfaces. Two other species of genus Myristica with different flavors, M. Mace is the spice made from the reddish seed covering aril of the nutmeg seed. Its flavour is similar to nutmeg but more delicate; it is used to flavour baked goods, meat, fish, vegetables and in preserving and pickling.
In the processing of mace, the crimson-colored aril is removed from the nutmeg seed that it envelops and is flattened out and dried for 10 to 14 days.
Its color changes to pale yellow, orange, or tan. The most important commercial species is the common, true or fragrant nutmeg, Myristica fragrans Myristicaceae , native to the Moluccas or Spice Islands of Indonesia. In the 17th-century work Hortus Botanicus Malabaricus , Hendrik van Rheede records that Indians learned the usage of nutmeg from the Indonesians through ancient trade routes.
Nutmeg trees are dioecious plants which are propagated sexually seeds and asexually cuttings or grafting. As there is no reliable method of determining plant sex before flowering in the sixth to eighth year, and sexual reproduction bears inconsistent yields, grafting is the preferred method of propagation. Epicotyl grafting a variation of cleft grafting using seedlings , approach grafting , and patch budding have proved successful, with epicotyl grafting being the most widely adopted standard.
The first harvest of nutmeg trees takes place seven to nine years after planting, and the trees reach full production after twenty years. Nutmeg and mace have similar sensory qualities, with nutmeg having a slightly sweeter and mace a more delicate flavour.
Mace is often preferred in light dishes for the bright orange, saffron -like hue it imparts. Nutmeg is used for flavouring many dishes, and nowadays is mostly found in Western supermarkets in ground or grated form.
Whole nutmeg can also be ground at home using a grater specifically designed for nutmeg  or a multi-purpose grating tool. In Indonesian cuisine , nutmeg is used in various dishes,  mainly in many spicy soups, such as some variant of soto , konro , oxtail soup , sup iga ribs soup , bakso and sup kambing. It is also used in gravy for meat dishes, such as semur beef stew, ribs with tomato, and European derived dishes such as bistik beef steak , rolade minced meat roll and bistik lidah beef tongue steak.
In Indian cuisine , nutmeg is used in many sweet, as well as savoury , dishes predominantly in Mughlai cuisine. In Kerala Malabar region , grated nutmeg is used in meat preparations and also sparingly added to desserts for the flavour.
It may also be used in small quantities in garam masala. Ground nutmeg is also smoked in India. In traditional European cuisine , nutmeg and mace are used especially in potato dishes and in processed meat products; they are also used in soups, sauces, and baked goods.
It is also commonly used in rice pudding. In Dutch cuisine , nutmeg is added to vegetables such as Brussels sprouts, cauliflower, and string beans. Nutmeg is a traditional ingredient in mulled cider , mulled wine , and eggnog. In Scotland, mace and nutmeg are usually both ingredients in haggis. In Italian cuisine , nutmeg is used as part of the stuffing for many regional meat-filled dumplings like tortellini , as well as for the traditional meatloaf.
Nutmeg is a common spice for pumpkin pie and in recipes for other winter squashes , such as baked acorn squash. In the Caribbean, nutmeg is often used in drinks, such as the Bushwacker, Painkiller , and Barbados rum punch. Typically, it is a sprinkle on top of the drink. The pericarp fruit covering is used to make jam, or is finely sliced, cooked with sugar, and crystallised to make a fragrant candy.
Sliced nutmeg fruit flesh is made as manisan sweets , either wet, which is seasoned in sugary syrup liquid, or dry coated with sugar, a dessert called manisan pala in Indonesia. In Penang cuisine , dried, shredded nutmeg rind with sugar coating is used as toppings on the uniquely Penang ais kacang.
Nutmeg rind is also blended creating a fresh, green, tangy taste and white colour juice or boiled resulting in a much sweeter and brown juice to make iced nutmeg juice.
In Kerala Malabar region of India, it is used for juice, pickles and chutney. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation of ground nutmeg  is used in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries.
The volatile fraction contains dozens of terpenes and phenylpropanoids , including d- pinene , limonene , d- borneol , l- terpineol , geraniol , safrol , and myristicin.
The oil is colorless or light yellow, and smells and tastes of nutmeg. It is used as a natural food flavoring in baked goods , syrups, beverages, and sweets. It is used to replace ground nutmeg, as it leaves no particles in the food. The essential oil is also used in the manufacturing of toothpaste and cough syrups.
Nutmeg butter is obtained from the nut by expression. It is semisolid, reddish-brown in colour, and has the taste and smell of nutmeg itself. The earliest known usage of nutmeg is on the island of Pulau Ai around 3, years ago based on residue found on ceramic potsherds. Until the midth century, the small island group of the Banda Islands , which are also known under the name "Spice Islands," was the only location of the production of nutmeg and mace in the world. The Banda Islands are situated in the eastern part of Indonesia, in the province of Maluku.
Nutmeg is known to have been a prized and costly spice in European medieval cuisine as a flavouring, medicinal, and preservative agent. Saint Theodore the Studite c. In Elizabethan times, because nutmeg was believed to ward off the plague, demand increased and its price skyrocketed. Nutmeg was known as a valuable commodity by Muslim sailors from the port of Basra including the fictional character Sinbad the Sailor in the One Thousand and One Nights.
Nutmeg was traded by Arabs during the Middle Ages and sold to the Venetians for high prices, but the traders did not divulge the exact location of their source in the profitable Indian Ocean trade , and no European was able to deduce its location. The Banda Islands became the scene of the earliest European ventures in Asia, in order to get a grip on the spice trade. In August , Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Malacca , which at the time was the hub of Asian trade, on behalf of the king of Portugal.
Malay pilots, either recruited or forcibly conscripted, guided them via Java , the Lesser Sundas , and Ambon to the Banda Islands, arriving in early Full control of this trade by the Portuguese was not possible, and they remained participants without a foothold in the islands.
In order to obtain a monopoly on the production and trade of nutmeg, the Dutch East India Company VOC waged a bloody battle with the Bandanese in Historian Willard Hanna estimated that before this struggle the islands were populated by approximately 15, people, and only 1, were left the Bandanese were killed, starved while fleeing, exiled or sold as slaves.
It included the nutmeg plantations for spice production, several forts for the defense of the spices, and a colonial town for trading and governance. The Dutch were not the only occupants of this region, however. The British skilfully negotiated with the village leaders on the island Rhun to protect them from the Dutch in exchange for a monopoly on their nutmeg. The village leader of Rhun accepted King James I of England as their sovereign, but the English presence on Rhun only lasted until As a result of the Dutch interregnum during the Napoleonic Wars , the British invaded and temporarily took control of the Banda Islands from the Dutch and transplanted nutmeg trees, complete with soil, to Sri Lanka , Penang, Bencoolen , and Singapore.
The national flag of Grenada , adopted in , shows a stylised split-open nutmeg fruit. It has been suggested that Connecticut received its nickname "the Nutmeg State", " Nutmegger " from the claim that some unscrupulous Connecticut traders would whittle "nutmeg" out of wood, creating a "wooden nutmeg", a term which later came to mean any type of fraud.
World production of nutmeg is estimated to average between 10, and 12, tonnes per year, with annual world demand estimated at over 9, tonnes; production of mace is estimated at 1, to 2, tonnes. Other producers include India, Malaysia especially Penang, where the trees grow wild within untamed areas [ citation needed ] , Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, and Caribbean islands such as St.
Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters. In the 19th century, nutmeg was thought to be an abortifacient , which led to numerous recorded cases of nutmeg poisoning. In low doses, nutmeg produces no noticeable physiological or neurological response, but in large doses, both raw nutmeg freshly ground from kernels, as well as nutmeg oil , have psychoactive effects,    which appear to derive from anticholinergic -like hallucinogenic mechanisms attributed to myristicin and elemicin.
Varying considerably from person to person, nutmeg intoxication may occur with side effects , such as delirium , anxiety, confusion, headaches, nausea, dizziness, dry mouth, eye irritation, or amnesia. Although rarely reported, nutmeg overdose can result in death, especially if combined with other drugs.
Nutmeg was once considered an abortifacient , but may be safe for culinary use during pregnancy if used only in flavoring amounts. While the spicy scent of nutmeg may be attractive to pets, there is potential for toxicity if large amounts are consumed. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the spice. For other uses, see Nutmeg disambiguation. Red aril and seed within fruit. September Retrieved 29 October Retrieved Top Exotic Food Plants. CRC Press. New York Times.
National Geographic. Retrieved 8 April Yes, and here's why". Retrieved 8 November Meyer; Jon M. Vann
Myristica fragrans Houtt. Nutmeg is only known from cultivation but it most probably originated in Indonesia from the southern Moluccan Islands, especially Ambon and Banda. Nutmeg and mace the dried aril spread from there and became known throughout South East Asia. The first record in Europe, in Constantinople, dates from AD. By the end of the 12th Century nutmeg and mace were generally known in Europe.
Processing of Nutmeg and Mace (Practical Action Brief)
In these early days of the holiday season, as cooks begin sifting through recipes rich in spice and sugar, consider this small warning from toxicologists: Measure your nutmeg carefully. Of all the well-loved seasonal spices, nutmeg stands out for its long and slightly twisted history. In the Middle Ages, it was used to end unwanted pregnancies. More recently, desperate prisoners embraced it as a rather miserable drug substitute. So, on occasion, have teenagers, some of whom wound up at poison control centers.
Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated. Show full item record. Maddela, Sudhamayee KAU. Valsala, P A. Sex determination in Nutmeg Myristica fragrans Houtt.
We are working on a subset of plants in the PFAF database identified as having the most potential for inclusion in such designs. We are adding search terms and icons to those plants pages, and providing a range of search options aligned to categories of plants and crop yields, with Help facilities including videos. Tumion californicum. Seed - raw or cooked. The seeds are roasted and eaten. They are rich in oil[, ]. The ovoid seed is up to 2cm long[K].
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Nutmeg , Myristica fragrans , tropical evergreen tree family Myristicaceae and the spice made of its seed. The tree is native to the Moluccas , or Spice Islands, of Indonesia and is principally cultivated there and in the West Indies. The spice nutmeg has a distinctive pungent fragrance and a warm slightly sweet taste; it is used to flavour many kinds of baked goods, confections, puddings, potatoes, meats, sausages, sauces, vegetables, and such beverages as eggnog. The fleshy arils surrounding the nutmeg seed are the source of the spice mace. Historically, grated nutmeg was used as a sachet, and the Romans used it as incense. Around it became important as an expensive commercial spice in the Western world and was the subject of Dutch plots to keep prices high and of English and French counterplots to obtain fertile seeds for transplantation. The nutmegs sold whole were dipped in lime to prevent their sprouting. Nutmeg trees may reach a height of about 20 metres 65 feet. They yield fruit eight years after sowing, reach their prime in 25 years, and bear fruit for 60 years or longer. The fruit is a pendulous drupe , similar in appearance to an apricot.
The use of nutmeg as a psychotropic agent
An exotic spice with a warm, sweet perfume and earthy flavor, nutmeg is a familiar ingredients in cookies, cakes and eggnog. The Dutch, who ruled over the islands, massacred native planters and destroyed farms in a campaign to dominate the spice trade and foil the British. Today, nutmeg is cultivated on commercial farms in tropical regions and is readily available in grocery stores worldwide. Nutmeg is the seed of the Myristica fragrans tree, an evergreen that is native to the Moluccas, or Spice Islands, in modern Indonesia. When fresh, the nutmeg fruit is pear-shaped and light cream or yellow. The central seed of the fruit is small, dark brown, round or oval, and encased in a red, lacy covering called an aril.
In vitro propagation of Nutmeg, Myristica Fragrans Houtt
Today, we discuss the nutmeg cultivation project report which can include the cost of cultivation of nutmeg, the profit of nutmeg farming , and yield of nutmegs per acre. Based on the nutmeg cultivation income, you can decide to go with it or not. Nutmeg cultivation in India: Nutmeg cultivation in India is a hugely profitable business for the nutmeg farmers. Nutmeg is the spice and plantation crop that is grown for the seed purpose. The economical part of the plantation crop is the seed i. It is a perennial crop were the nutmeg farmer get the income returns subsequently in every year up to 25 to 30 years. Nutmeg is native to Indonesia. As the Indian climatic environmental conditions also o suits for its cultivation, the farmers can go for its cultivation. It requires annual rainfall up to mm and the plants can be grown up to an altitude of m above the MSL Mean Sea level. Clay loamy , red loam to red laterite soils is good for its cultivation.
Cookbook Recipes Ingredients Spices and herbs. Nutmeg and mace are two spices derived from the same plant, the nutmeg tree Myristica fragrans. The nutmeg tree is indigenous to the Banda Islands of Indonesia but is also grown in the Caribbean e. Several commercial products are produced from the nutmeg tree, nutmeg and mace being the best known.
A Warning on Nutmeg
The 10 tiny Banda islands bask in the scattered, dazzled confusion of western Melanesia. There isn't much nearby. Java is 2,km west, and other Indonesian islands are a protracted, bobbing boat trip away.
Nutmeg Cultivation Project Report; Cost; Profit; Yield
Registered in Ireland: So, I often have a sprinkle of cinnamon on my morning toast to set me up right for the day. Cinnamon has a long history in both Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to treat blood pressure, circulation issues, heart disease, inflammation, cognitive function, and what we now call diabetes and metabolic syndrome X. Modern science has revealed the mechanisms of how as little as a teaspoon of cinnamon a day radically improves the life expectancy of those with insulin resistance.
Section III - Post harvest handling. Contents - Previous - Next. Harvesting 2. Post harvest handling operations in the field - preparation for marketing to GCNA 3.