This unique book adopts a problem approach to study the Internet economy, which consists in assessing its contradiction to classic economy, analyzing it, and describing how the Internet economy is developing in modern Russia. The authors study its sense and basic principles, identify the factors that influence its functioning and development, analyze the crisis of the Internet economy, and conduct a comparative analysis of the Internet economy and classic economy. The book is primarily intended for postgraduates, educators and researchers who study the foundations of the modern macro-economy. Based on the conclusions and results presented here, they will be able to create their own scientific studies. Further, problem analysis of the Internet economy and classic economy makes it possible to identify the peculiarities and prospects of development, and to form recommendations for the highly effective management of modern economic systems.
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2018 Top Manufacturing CarriersVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: The next manufacturing revolution is here - Olivier Scalabre
Less-than-truckload shipping or less than load LTL is the transportation of relatively small freight. The alternatives to LTL carriers are parcel carriers or full truckload carriers. Full truckload carriers move freight that is loaded into a semi-trailer.
Semi-trailers are typically between 26 and 53 feet 7. There are several different perspectives as to what is actually considered LTL. Full truck load FTL carriers can put anywhere from two to six different shipper's shipments on a trailer and since each shipment is technically "less than a truckload" they would consider that to be LTL.
There are also freight companies who do not specialize in truck loads, but rather, consolidate larger volume shipments from about 2 to 12 pallets or about to pounds and consider themselves LTL Carriers.
Mail parcel services about pounds to just under what would usually be considered a Truck Load, at about 20, pounds or more than 14 pallets. LTL common carriers are also more likely to accept loose non-palletized cargo than the other two. Less than Truckload carriers use "hub and spoke" operations where small local terminals are the spokes 'end of line' , and larger more central terminals are the hubs also called Distribution Centers or DC's.
Spoke terminals collect local freight from various shippers and consolidate that freight onto enclosed trailers for transporting to the delivering or hub terminal, where the freight will be further sorted and consolidated for additional transporting also known as linehauling. In most cases, the end of line terminals employ local drivers who start the day by loading up their trailers and heading out to make deliveries first. When the trailer is empty, they begin making pickups and return to the terminal for sorting and delivery next day.
Because of the efficiency of this order of operations, most deliveries are performed in the morning and pickups are made in the afternoon. Pickup and delivery drivers usually have set casual routes which they travel every day or several times a week, so the driver has an opportunity to develop a rapport with their customers. Once the driver has filled their trailer or completed their assigned route, they return to their terminal for unloading. The trailer is unloaded and the individual shipments are then weighed and inspected to verify their conformity to the description contained in the accompanying paperwork.
Next, the freight is loaded onto an outbound trailer which will forward the freight to a breakbulk , a connection, or to the delivering terminal. An LTL shipment may be handled only once while in transit, or it may be handled multiple times before final delivery is accomplished.
LTL transit times are not directly related only to the distance between shipper and consignee. Instead, LTL transit times are also dependent upon the makeup of the network of terminals and breakbulks that are operated by a given carrier and that carrier's beyond agents and interline partners.
For example, if a shipment is picked up and delivered by the same freight terminal, or if the freight must be sorted and routed only once while in transit, the freight will likely be delivered on the next business day after pickup. If the freight must be sorted and routed more than once, or if more than one linehaul is required for transportation to the delivering terminal, then the transit time will be longer.
In some instances, the LTL freight has up to 10 days of delivery time frame. Also, delivery to beyond points or remote areas will almost always add days to the transit time. The main advantage to using an LTL carrier is that a shipment may be transported for a fraction of the cost of hiring an entire truck and trailer for an exclusive shipment.
Also, a number of accessory services are available from LTL carriers, which are not typically offered by FTL carriers. These optional services include liftgate service at pickup or delivery, residential also known as "non-commercial" service at pickup or delivery, inside delivery, notification prior to delivery, freeze protection, and others.
These services are usually billed at a predetermined flat fee, or for a weight based surcharge calculated as a rate per pound or per hundredweight. Shippers with enough volume of LTL freight may choose to use a full truckload carrier to move the freight directly to a break-bulk facility of an LTL carrier. For example, a North Carolina shipper with a large quantity of shipments bound for Western US States for example, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho may be able to realize significant cost savings by having a FTL carrier, known as a linehaul carrier, transport the freight to a break-bulk facility in a central location near the ultimate destination of the freight in this example, delivery to a break-bulk facility in California for parceling out into LTL lots for transport to the final destinations.
The use of an FTL carrier to transport this freight generally provides an overall cost savings because the freight will travel fewer miles in the FTL carrier's network, as well as a reduced overall fuel surcharge cost—that is, one FTL carrier travels the distance to the break-bulk facility for a single carrier's price while using only the fuel required for that FTL truck, vs.
A further benefit is realized in both loading cost and product damage, because the freight will not need to be unloaded and reloaded as many times. Additionally, this reduces the incidence of loss and the opportunity for pilfering or theft, because all of the freight travels together and is not broken down into LTL loads until it reaches the break-bulk distribution facility. Parcel carriers typically compete with LTL carriers by convincing shippers to break larger shipments down to smaller packages.
The hundredweight rate is multiplied by the shipment's weight and then divided by and then rounded up to the nearest hundred. LTL carriers prefer to handle shipments with the least amount of handling units possible. LTL carriers prefer a shipment of 1 pallet containing many boxes shrink wrapped to form one piece rather than many individual pieces.
This reduces handling costs and the risk of damage during transit. Typically, the per-pound rates of LTL carriers are less than the per-pound rates of parcel carriers. Both LTL carriers and XL parcel carriers are similar in the fact that they both use a network of hubs and terminals to deliver freight.
Delivery times by both types of service providers are not directly dependent upon the distance between shipper and consignee. Also, using an LTL carrier is very similar to that of using a parcel carrier. The shipper often has a regular, if not daily, pickup schedule and can log onto the carriers homepage to schedule pickups, track shipments, print paperwork, and manage billing information.
Freight sent via LTL carriers must be handled several times during transit, often by different carriers. It must be packaged to protect it from scuffing, vibration, crushing, dropping, humidity, condensation. Thus, it is normally good practice to load freight onto pallets or package freight into crates. Sturdy shipping containers such as corrugated fiberboard boxes are normally acceptable as well, but pallets are preferred.
Carriers have published tariffs that provide some guidance for packaging. Packaging engineers design and test packaging to meet the specific needs of the logistics system and the product being shipped. Proper packaging freight serves several purposes:. Since freight sent via LTL carriers is subject to misrouting or misleading, it is a good practice to put the tracking number on each side of each piece of freight.
If the destination state and zipcode are affixed to each side as well, misloading is less likely to occur. Even though it is not required, it is good practice to affix a relatively large label including the four letter carrier code, tracking number, destination station, and destination zipcode of the shipment i. The easier it is for dockworkers to identify an individual shipment, the less likely it is to be misrouted. The value or type of contents should not be advertised on the package to help reduce loss.
If the only piece of identification is the tracking number, the dockworker will have more difficulty identifying the shipment's pieces, hence the chances of freight being loaded onto the wrong trailer are greater, increasing the transit time and increasing the probability of the shipment being lost.
Proper labels , bar codes , and RFID are important for proper routing and delivery. Not all LTL shipments travel by truck only. LTL carriers rely on rail or air to forward some freight toward its destination. LTL carriers are normally able to deal with railroads more effectively than small shippers since LTL carriers typically send a large volume of freight daily.
For example, a significant portion of rail intermodal traffic consists of truck trailers, often dozens in a single intermodal train, carrying LTL freight. LTL carriers are able to monitor railroad performance to ensure delivery of freight within the specified delivery window.
An Intermodal freight transport shipment employs several methods of transporting goods from start to finish. For instance, one shipment will start out on the railroad, then be transferred to an ocean carrier, and end up on a truck before delivery.
Intermodal shipping is considered advantageous by some shippers because there is no handling of the freight when it changes from one carrier to the next. Pallets are used to consolidate many items into one easy-to-move container. Because handling is reduced, it also reduces damage and loss, increases security, and allows quicker transport. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
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Download PDF Version. The history of telecommunications services abounds with innovations. All of these leaps in technology involved getting more service, and better service, per hour of labor. The measurement of output per hours worked, known as labor productivity , is one of the best ways to study innovation.
Productivity trends in the wired and wireless telecommunications industries
Plunkett Research, Ltd. Jack W. This reference book is a complete guide to the trends and leading companies in the engineering, research, design, innovation and development business fields: those firms that are dominant in engineering-based design and development, as well leaders in technology-based research and development. We have included companies that are making significant investments in research and development via as many disciplines as possible, whether that research is being funded by internal investment, by fees received from clients or by fees collected from government agencies.
Additive Manufacturing of Information Carriers Based on Shape Memory Polyester Urethane
Shape memory polymers SMPs are stimuli-responsive materials, which are able to retain an imposed, temporary shape and recover the initial, permanent shape through an external stimulus like heat. In this work, a novel manufacturing method is introduced for thermoresponsive quick response QR code carriers, which originally were developed as anticounterfeiting technology. Motivated by the fact that earlier manufacturing processes were sometimes too time-consuming for production, filaments of a polyester urethane PEU with and without dye were extruded and processed into QR code carriers using fused filament fabrication FFF. Once programmed, the distinct shape memory properties enabled a heating-initiated switching from non-decodable to machine-readable QR codes.
Plunkett Research, Ltd. Plunkett's Automobile Industry Almanac Jack W. The automobile industry is evolving rapidly on a worldwide basis. Manufacturers are merging, component design and manufacture are now frequently outsourced instead of being created in-house, brands are changing and the giant auto makers are expanding deeper into providing financial services to car buyers. The skyrocketing price of gas spurs developments in hybrid technology and clean diesel, as manufacturers look for ways to improve fuel efficiency. Meanwhile, all of the biggest, most successful firms have become totally global in nature. Plunkett's Automobile Industry Almanac will be your complete guide to this immense, fascinating industry.
Carrier was founded in as an independent, American company, manufacturing and distributing heating, ventilating and air conditioning HVAC systems, as well as commercial refrigeration and food service equipment. Carrier was acquired by United Technologies in Willis Carrier is credited with inventing modern air conditioning in The corporation bearing his name marketed its air conditioner to the residential market in the s, which led to formerly sparsely populated areas such as the American Southwest becoming home to sprawling suburbs.
Government Printing Office Amazon. Minerals Yearbook : Area Reports: Domestic. Geological Survey , U. Department of the Interior. Government Printing Office , Signigicantly reduced price. Overstock List Price Reviews the U. It presents salient statistics on production, consumption, and other pertinent data for each State and is prepared in cooperation with State Geological Surveys or related agencies. The Mineral Industry of Alabama 3 1. California 7 1. Nebraska 29 1.
CRC Press Amazon. The Industrial Information Technology Handbook. CRC Press , 3. The Industrial Information Technology Handbook focuses on existing and emerging industrial applications of IT, and on evolving trends that are driven by the needs of companies and by industry-led consortia and organizations. Emphasizing fast growing areas that have major impacts on industrial automation and enterprise integration, the Handbook covers topics such as industrial communication technology, sensors, and embedded systems. The book is organized into two parts.
To keep pace with market-dictated demands, machine builders and plant engineers require a needs-based solution:. The Multi-Carrier-System is designed precisely to meet these market requirements. It offers needs-oriented scalable engineering tools, as well as modular hardware components. In addition, we also offer you our comprehensive expertise, which is incorporated into your customized solution. In this configurable transport system, the transport carriers, which are driven by linear motors, are flexibly moved to the individual units, e.
The term aerospace is derived from the words aeronautics and spaceflight. The aerospace industry is engaged in the research, development, and manufacture of flight vehicles, including unpowered gliders and sailplanes see gliding , lighter-than-air craft see balloon ; airship , heavier-than-air craft both fixed-wing and rotary-wing; see airplane ; military aircraft , missiles see rocket and missile system , space launch vehicles , and spacecraft manned and unmanned.
TV adverts and sci-fi movies have led us to believe that nobody actually works in the manufacturing and production sector anymore. Apparently, the entire industry is run by robots, putting things together with astonishing efficiency and then cheekily scribbling on the side of cars. Well, we hate to disappoint you, but factories do still need people working in them.
The E1 is easy to mount, and guarantees a safe and smooth operation, The drag-chain is not only safe and reliable, but is The Series, manufactured by Brevetti Stendalto, is a nylon cable chain protection series that has a chain height of 12 mm and an anti-friction axle of a single link production. The L Series, manufactured by Brevetti Stendalto, is a nylon cable chain protection series that has a chain height of 17 mm, single link production, inner LI and outer LE radius