Manufacturing traditionally is an industry that embraces new technologies, so it is no surprise that digital transformation has come to factory floors. However, in the rush to digital and to adopt the Industrial Internet of Things IIoT , companies tend to be more focused on how many new digital tools to bring on board rather than what tools are best suited to overall business goals. For enterprises seeking to make a digital transformation with IIoT, it is important to have a calibrated path towards achieving business initiatives. This calibration allows leadership and IT decision makers to set the right expectations on ROI, organizational buy-ins and timelines. The roadmap for the digital transformation journey begins with creating a digital footprint for enhanced visibility and integrations. Analyzing this digital footprint for efficiencies helps yield significant improvements on Key Performance Indicators KPI.
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- Powering the Smart Factory with the Internet of Things
- Types of IIoT Software
- 4 Dimensions of Digital Transformation with the Industrial Internet of Things
- Mobile IoT Case Study: Ericsson Smart Industrial Factory
- Manufacturing engineering
- Future Factory: How Technology Is Transforming Manufacturing
- Industry 4.0 and Internet of Things tools help streamline factory automation
- Will the industrial internet disrupt the smart factory of the future?
Powering the Smart Factory with the Internet of ThingsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Harvesting Snail Slime for Beauty Products
Manufacturing Engineering it is a branch of professional engineering that shares many common concepts and ideas with other fields of engineering such as mechanical, chemical, electrical, and industrial engineering.
Manufacturing engineering requires the ability to plan the practices of manufacturing; to research and to develop tools, processes, machines and equipment; and to integrate the facilities and systems for producing quality products with the optimum expenditure of capital. Manufacturing Engineering is based on core industrial engineering and mechanical engineering skills, adding important elements from mechatronics, commerce, economics and business management.
This field also deals with the integration of different facilities and systems for producing quality products with optimal expenditure by applying the principles of physics and the results of manufacturing systems studies, such as the following:.
Manufacturing engineers develop and create physical artifacts, production processes, and technology. It is a very broad area which includes the design and development of products. Manufacturing engineers' success or failure directly impacts the advancement of technology and the spread of innovation. This field of manufacturing engineering emerged from tool and die discipline in the early 20th century. It expanded greatly from the s when industrialized countries introduced factories with:.
Numerical control machine tools and automated systems of production. Advanced statistical methods of quality control : These factories were pioneered by the American electrical engineer William Edwards Deming , who was initially ignored by his home country. The same methods of quality control later turned Japanese factories into world leaders in cost-effectiveness and production quality.
Industrial robots on the factory floor, introduced in the late s: These computer-controlled welding arms and grippers could perform simple tasks such as attaching a car door quickly and flawlessly 24 hours a day. This cut costs and improved production speed. The history of manufacturing engineering can be traced to factories in the mid 19th century USA and 18th century UK. Although large home production sites and workshops were established in China, ancient Rome and the Middle East, the Venice Arsenal provides one of the first examples of a factory in the modern sense of the word.
Founded in in the Republic of Venice several hundred years before the Industrial Revolution , this factory mass-produced ships on assembly lines using manufactured parts.
The Venice Arsenal apparently produced nearly one ship every day and, at its height, employed 16, people. Many historians regard Matthew Boulton's Soho Manufactory established in in Birmingham as the first modern factory. The Cromford Mill was purpose-built to accommodate the equipment it held and to take the material through the various manufacturing processes.
The Potosi factory took advantage of the abundant silver that was mined nearby and processed silver ingot slugs into coins. British colonies in the 19th century built factories simply as buildings where a large number of workers gathered to perform hand labor, usually in textile production. This proved more efficient for the administration and distribution of materials to individual workers than earlier methods of manufacturing, such as cottage industries or the putting-out system.
Cotton mills used inventions such as the steam engine and the power loom to pioneer the industrial factories of the 19th century, where precision machine tools and replaceable parts allowed greater efficiency and less waste. This experience formed the basis for the later studies of manufacturing engineering. Between and , non-mechanized factories supplanted traditional artisan shops as the predominant form of manufacturing institution. Henry Ford further revolutionized the factory concept and thus manufacturing engineering in the early 20th century with the innovation of mass production.
Highly specialized workers situated alongside a series of rolling ramps would build up a product such as in Ford's case an automobile. This concept dramatically decreased production costs for virtually all manufactured goods and brought about the age of consumerism. Modern manufacturing engineering studies include all intermediate processes required for the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term "fabrication" for these processes.
Automation is used in different processes of manufacturing such as machining and welding. Automated manufacturing refers to the application of automation to produce goods in a factory. The main advantages of automated manufacturing for the manufacturing process are realized with effective implementation of automation and include: higher consistency and quality, reduction of lead times, simplification of production, reduced handling, improved work flow, and improved worker morale.
Robotics is the application of mechatronics and automation to create robots, which are often used in manufacturing to perform tasks that are dangerous, unpleasant, or repetitive. These robots may be of any shape and size, but all are preprogrammed and interact physically with the world. To create a robot, an engineer typically employs kinematics to determine the robot's range of motion and mechanics to determine the stresses within the robot.
Robots are used extensively in manufacturing engineering. Robots allow businesses to save money on labor, perform tasks that are either too dangerous or too precise for humans to perform economically, and to ensure better quality.
Many companies employ assembly lines of robots, and some factories are so robotized that they can run by themselves. Outside the factory, robots have been employed in bomb disposal, space exploration, and many other fields.
Robots are also sold for various residential applications. These systems may include material handling equipment, machine tools, robots or even computers or networks of computers.
Manufacturing engineers possess an associate's or bachelor's degree in engineering with a major in manufacturing engineering.
The length of study for such a degree is usually two to five years followed by five more years of professional practice to qualify as a professional engineer.
Working as a manufacturing engineering technologist involves a more applications-oriented qualification path. For manufacturing technologists the required degrees are Associate or Bachelor of Technology [B.
Doctoral [PhD] or [DEng] level courses in manufacturing are also available depending on the university. The undergraduate degree curriculum generally includes courses in physics, mathematics, computer science, project management, and specific topics in mechanical and manufacturing engineering. Initially such topics cover most, if not all, of the subdisciplines of manufacturing engineering. Students then choose to specialize in one or more subdisciplines towards the end of their degree work.
This syllabus is closely related to Industrial Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, but it differs by placing more emphasis on Manufacturing Science or Production Science. It includes the following areas:. A degree in Manufacturing Engineering typically differs from Mechanical Engineering in only a few specialized classes.
Mechanical Engineering degrees focus more on the product design process and on complex products which requires more mathematical expertise. In some countries, "professional engineer" is the term for registered or licensed engineers who are permitted to offer their professional services directly to the public.
In order to qualify for this license, a candidate needs a bachelor's degree from an ABET recognized university in the USA, a passing score on a state examination, and four years of work experience usually gained via a structured internship. In the USA, more recent graduates have the option of dividing this licensure process into two segments.
The Fundamentals of Engineering FE exam is often taken immediately after graduation and the Principles and Practice of Engineering exam is taken after four years of working in a chosen engineering field. The SME administers qualifications specifically for the manufacturing industry. These are not degree level qualifications and are not recognized at the professional engineering level.
The following discussion deals with qualifications in the USA only. Qualified candidates for the Certified Manufacturing Technologist Certificate CMfgT must pass a three-hour, question multiple-choice exam.
The exam covers math, manufacturing processes, manufacturing management, automation, and related subjects. Additionally, a candidate must have at least four years of combined education and manufacturing-related work experience. Candidates qualifying for a Certified Manufacturing Engineer credential must pass a four-hour, question multiple-choice exam which covers more in-depth topics than does the CMfgT exam.
CMfgE candidates must also have eight years of combined education and manufacturing-related work experience, with a minimum of four years of work experience. The Certified Engineering Manager Certificate is also designed for engineers with eight years of combined education and manufacturing experience.
The test is four hours long and has multiple-choice questions. The CEM certification exam covers business processes, teamwork, responsibility, and other management-related categories. Many manufacturing companies, especially those in industrialized nations, have begun to incorporate computer-aided engineering CAE programs into their existing design and analysis processes, including 2D and 3D solid modeling computer-aided design CAD.
This method has many benefits, including easier and more exhaustive visualization of products, the ability to create virtual assemblies of parts, and ease of use in designing mating interfaces and tolerances. Other CAE programs commonly used by product manufacturers include product life cycle management PLM tools and analysis tools used to perform complex simulations.
Analysis tools may be used to predict product response to expected loads, including fatigue life and manufacturability. Using CAE programs, a mechanical design team can quickly and cheaply iterate the design process to develop a product that better meets cost, performance, and other constraints.
No physical prototype need be created until the design nears completion, allowing hundreds or thousands of designs to be evaluated, instead of relatively few. In addition, CAE analysis programs can model complicated physical phenomena which cannot be solved by hand, such as viscoelasticity, complex contact between mating parts, or non-Newtonian flows. Just as manufacturing engineering is linked with other disciplines, such as mechatronics, multidisciplinary design optimization MDO is also being used with other CAE programs to automate and improve the iterative design process.
MDO tools wrap around existing CAE processes, allowing product evaluation to continue even after the analyst goes home for the day. They also utilize sophisticated optimization algorithms to more intelligently explore possible designs, often finding better, innovative solutions to difficult multidisciplinary design problems. Manufacturing engineering is an extremely important discipline worldwide. It goes by different names in different countries. Mechanics, in the most general sense, is the study of forces and their effects on matter.
Typically, engineering mechanics is used to analyze and predict the acceleration and deformation both elastic and plastic of objects under known forces also called loads or stresses. Subdisciplines of mechanics include:. If the engineering project were to design a vehicle, statics might be employed to design the frame of the vehicle in order to evaluate where the stresses will be most intense.
Dynamics might be used when designing the car's engine to evaluate the forces in the pistons and cams as the engine cycles. Mechanics of materials might be used to choose appropriate materials for the manufacture of the frame and engine. Fluid mechanics might be used to design a ventilation system for the vehicle or to design the intake system for the engine. Kinematics is the study of the motion of bodies objects and systems groups of objects , while ignoring the forces that cause the motion.
The movement of a crane and the oscillations of a piston in an engine are both simple kinematic systems. The crane is a type of open kinematic chain, while the piston is part of a closed four-bar linkage. Engineers typically use kinematics in the design and analysis of mechanisms.
Kinematics can be used to find the possible range of motion for a given mechanism, or, working in reverse, can be used to design a mechanism that has a desired range of motion. Drafting or technical drawing is the means by which manufacturers create instructions for manufacturing parts. A technical drawing can be a computer model or hand-drawn schematic showing all the dimensions necessary to manufacture a part, as well as assembly notes, a list of required materials, and other pertinent information.
S engineer or skilled worker who creates technical drawings may be referred to as a drafter or draftsman. Drafting has historically been a two-dimensional process, but computer-aided design CAD programs now allow the designer to create in three dimensions. Optionally, an engineer may also manually manufacture a part using the technical drawings, but this is becoming an increasing rarity with the advent of computer numerically controlled CNC manufacturing.
Build: Technology is advancing the ways we create, and experience, our spaces. To secure a smart future, manufacturers are leveraging the Internet of Things to reshape product development and production. Selecting the right infrastructure is crucial for success. T he first half of the digital revolution was about using machines to connect people —allowing them to share ideas, experiences, memories, and more with others halfway across the globe.
Oxford University Press Amazon. Maurie J. Oxford University Press , 3 Kas - sayfa. Consumer society in the United States and other countries is receding due to demographic ageing, rising income inequality, political paralysis, and resource scarcity. At the same time, steady jobs that compensate employees on a salaried or hourly basis are being replaced by freelancing and contingent work.
Types of IIoT Software
Manufacturing is a great place to work. Manufacturing employs 8. Manufacturing spans some of the most interesting high-tech industries, such as aerospace, food technology, machine monitoring, and pharmaceuticals. Things have come a long way.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: FAST WORKERS COMPILATION #2
Double-digit savings have been demonstrated in individual applications and in factory-wide systems wherever they have been applied, whether in Europe, the Americas or increasingly, China. The smart factory will use artificial intelligence AI and other advanced technologies to improve productivity, profitability and quality and will be more agile than anything we have seen in large-scale manufacturing. It defines a digital twin as a virtual representation of a physical product or process. This could be a jet engine or a factory line. They incorporate simulation, data analytics and machine learning capabilities to demonstrate the impact of design changes, usage scenarios, environmental conditions and other variables. They can help to reduce or even eliminate completely the need for physical prototypes. By collecting accurate data, the digital twin evolves and continuously updates to reflect any change to the physical counterpart.
4 Dimensions of Digital Transformation with the Industrial Internet of Things
The Industrial Revolution , the period in which agrarian and handicraft economies shifted rapidly to industrial and machine-manufacturing-dominated ones, began in the United Kingdom in the 18th century and later spread throughout many other parts of the world. This economic transformation changed not only how work was done and goods were produced, but it also altered how people related both to one another and to the planet at large. The following list describes some of the great benefits as well as some of the significant shortcomings associated with the Industrial Revolution.
Posted by Tammy Borden. After years of sluggish growth and in several cases decline , many areas of the country are experiencing a thriving manufacturing sector. Today, 6 out of 10 open skilled production positions are unfilled. While automation and robotics may help fill the labor gap, skilled workers will still be needed to apply problem-solving capabilities, perform analysis and manage production. One reason manufacturers are finding it difficult to fill positions, both skilled and unskilled, is the lack of trade school opportunities for young men and women. To solve for this problem, many manufacturers are developing robust training programs to teach candidates everything from die making and welding to robotics programming and sheet rolling. The more effective way to connect, especially with millennials, is through social media. Use video to highlight the benefits of working for your organization , and promote your workplace culture as a primary asset. By the time many IT departments have gone through the process of researching, getting approval, purchasing and installing new technology, a faster and more agile solution may have already emerged. The best first step for incorporating useful technologies to help your organization grow profitably is to work with a business consulting firm that has expertise in manufacturing, such as Wipfli. These teams can help you make inroads faster, as they have the insights to assist in selecting the most practical, cost-effective technologies and equipment, oversee implementation, train your team, and help you get the greatest ROI.
Mobile IoT Case Study: Ericsson Smart Industrial Factory
The smart factory represents a leap forward from more traditional automation to a fully connected and flexible system—one that can use a constant stream of data from connected operations and production systems to learn and adapt to new demands. Connectivity within the manufacturing process is not new. Yet recent trends such as the rise of the fourth industrial revolution, Industry 4. Shifting from linear, sequential supply chain operations to an interconnected, open system of supply operations—known as the digital supply network —could lay the foundation for how companies compete in the future. To fully realize the digital supply network, however, manufacturers likely need to unlock several capabilities: horizontal integration through the myriad operational systems that power the organization; vertical integration through connected manufacturing systems; and end-to-end, holistic integration through the entire value chain. In this paper, we explore how these capabilities integrate to enable the act of production. This integration is colloquially known as the smart factory, and signifies the opportunity to drive greater value both within the four walls of the factory and across the supply network. The result can be a more efficient and agile system, less production downtime, and a greater ability to predict and adjust to changes in the facility or broader network, possibly leading to better positioning in the competitive marketplace.
New Industry 4. It holds the key to accessing real-time results and data that will catapult the industry into new levels of lean achievements. The concept of Industry 4. It envelops many technologies and is used in a variety of different contexts. There are five pieces that define Industry 4. Each piece is similar in nature but, when integrated together, create capability that has never before been possible. Today data is collected everywhere, from systems and sensors to mobile devices. The challenge is that the industry is still in the process of developing methods to best interpret data.
Future Factory: How Technology Is Transforming Manufacturing
United States. Committee on Science and Technology.
Industry 4.0 and Internet of Things tools help streamline factory automation
Factory automation enhances productivity, Banda said, but can inhibit industrial communications along the way, especially when networking happens via device-to-device connections, as with many legacy automation systems. Industry 4.
Will the industrial internet disrupt the smart factory of the future?
In the s IBM had a rock-solid market position in personal computers. Along came a small startup called Microsoft and disrupted the operating system space with DOS and Windows. By the s Microsoft had a dominant position in operating systems.
In large multinationals, especially in process manufacturing industries like petrochemical, it clearly appears beneficial to have each facility, each boiler, and even each pressure sensor connected to a powerful central data processor so that management can maintain control. But what about smaller companies? What about parts suppliers and contract manufacturers? Is IIoT and machine data monitoring technology worthwhile for small to medium sized enterprises?