Nanoscale Research Letters. December , Cite as. Nanoparticles are very interesting because of their surface properties, different from bulk materials. Such properties make possible to endow ordinary products with new functionalities. Their relatively low cost with respect to other nano-additives make them a promising choice for industrial mass-production systems.
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Nanomaterials for Functional Textiles and FibersVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Polyester fiber from PET bottle with new "EASY WOOL 3 "
Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form. These short fibers are spun into longer filaments to make the yarn. Long continuous strands may only require additional twisting to make them into yarns.
Sometimes they are put through an additional process called texturing. The characteristics of spun yarn depend, in part, on the amount of twist given to the fibers during spinning. A fairly high degree of twist produces strong yarn; a low twist produces softer, more lustrous yarn; and a very tight twist produces crepe yarn. Yarns are also classified by their number of parts. A single yarn is made from a group of filament or staple fibers twisted together.
Ply yarns are made by twisting two or more single yarns. Cord yarns are made by twisting together two or more ply yarns. Almost eight billion pounds 3. Textured, crimped, or bulked yarn comprised one half of the total spun. Textured yarn has higher volume due to physical, chemical, or heat treatments.
Crimped yarn is made of thermoplastic fibers of deformed shape. Bulked yarn is formed from fibers that are inherently bulky and cannot be closely packed. Yarn is used to make textiles using a variety of processes, including weaving, knitting, and felting. Nearly four billion pounds 1. The U. The apparel industry employs another one million workers. Natural fibers—cotton, flax, silk, and wool—represent the major fibers available to ancient civilizations.
The earliest known samples of yarn and fabric of any kind were found near Robenhausen, Switzerland, where bundles of flax fibers and yarns and fragments of plain-weave linen fabric, were estimated to be about 7, years old.
Cotton has also been cultivated and used to make fabrics for at least 7, years. It may have existed in Egypt as early as 12, B. Fragments of cotton fabrics have been found by archeologists in Mexico from B.
Cotton did not achieve commercial importance in Europe until after the colonization of the New World. Silk culture remained a specialty of the Chinese from its beginnings B. Synthetic fibers did not appear until much later. The first synthetic, rayon, made from cotton or wood fibers, was developed in , but not commercially produced until Almost a half a century later, nylon was invented, followed by the various forms of polyester.
Synthetic fibers reduced the world demand for natural fibers and expanded applications. Until about , yarn was spun on the spindle and whorl. A spindle is a rounded stick with tapered ends to which the fibers are attached and twisted; a whorl is a weight attached to the spindle that acts as a flywheel to keep the spindle rotating. The fibers were pulled by hand from a bundle of carded fibers tied to a stick called a distaff. In hand carding, fibers are placed between two boards covered with leather, through which protrude fine wire hooks that catch the fibers as one board is pulled gently across the other.
The spindle, which hangs from the fibers, twists the fibers as it rotates downward, and spins a length of yarn as it pulls away from the fiber bundle. When the spindle reaches the floor, the spinner winds the yarn around the spindle to secure it and then starts the process again. This is continued until all of the fiber is spun or until the spindle is full. A major improvement was the spinning wheel, invented in India between and A.
A horizontally mounted spindle is connected to a large, hand-driven wheel by a circular band. The distaff is mounted at one end of the spinning wheel and the fiber is fed by hand to the spindle, which turns as the wheel turns. A component called the flyer twists the thread just before it is wound on a bobbin. The spindle and bobbin are attached to the wheel by separate parts, so that the bobbin turns more slowly than does the spindle.
Thus, thread can be twisted and wound at the same time. About years later, the Saxon wheel was introduced. Operated by a foot pedal, the Saxon wheel allowed both hands the freedom to work the fibers. A number of developments during the eighteenth century further mechanized the spinning process. In , the flying shuttle was invented by John Kay, followed by Hargreaves' spinning jenny in The jenny featured a series of spindles set in a row, enabling one operator to produce large quantities of yarn.
Several years later Richard Arkwright patented the spinning frame, a machine that used a series of rotating rollers to draw out the fibers. A decade later Samule Cromptons' mule machine was invented, which could spin any type of yarn in one continuous operation. The ring frame was invented in by the American John Thorp and is still widely used today. This system involves hundreds of spindles mounted vertically inside a metal ring.
Many natural fibers are now spun by the open-end system, where the fibers are drawn by air into a rapidly rotating cup and pulled out on the other side as a finished yarn. About 15 different types of fibers are used to make yarn. These fibers fall into two categories, natural and synthetic. Natural fibers are those that are obtained from a plant or an animal and are mainly used in weaving textiles.
The most abundant and commonly used plant fiber is cotton, gathered from the cotton boil or seed pod when it is mature. In fact, cotton is the best-selling fiber in America, outselling all synthetic fibers combined. Fibers taken from the plant leaf or stern are generally used for rope. Other plant fibers include acetate made from wood pulp or cotton linters and linen, made from flax, a vegetable fiber.
Animal fibers include wool, made from sheep hair, and mohair, made from angora goats and rabbits. Silk is a protein extruded in long, continuous strands by the silkworm as it weaves its cocoon.
Synthetic fibers are made by forcing a thick solution of polymerized chemicals through spinneret nozzles and hardening the resulting filament in a chemical bath. These include acrylic, nylon, polyester, polyolefin, rayon, spandex, and triacetate. Some of these fibers have similar characteristics to the natural fibers without the shrinkage problems. Other fibers have special properties for specific applications.
Fibers are shipped in bales, which are opened by hand or machine. The picker loosens and separates the lumps of fiber and also cleans the fiber if necessary. The carding machine separates the fibers and pulls them into somewhat parallel form. The thin web of fibers formed then passes through a funnel-shaped device that produces a ropelike strand of parallel fibers. Rollers elongate the strand, called a sliver, into a single more uniform strand that is given a small amount of twist and fed into large cans.
There are three major spinning processes: cotton, worsted or long-staple, or wool. Synthetic staple fibers can be made with any of these processes. Since more yarn is produced with the cotton process than the other two, its manufacture is described below. Automation has made achieving quality easier, with electronics controlling operations, temperatures, speeds, twists, and efficiency.
The American Society for Testing of Materials has also established standardized methods for determining such properties as drawforce, bulk, and shrinkage.
Spinning systems and yarn manufacturing machinery will continue to become more automated and will be integrated as part of a manufacturing unit rather than as a separate process.
Spinning machines have already been developed that combine carding and drawing functions. Production rates will increase by orders of magnitude as machines become available with even more spindles. Robot-controlled equipment will become standard.
Domestic yarn producers will continue to be threatened by competition from Asian countries, as these countries continue to buy the latest textile machinery technology. The textile industry is also forming unique partnerships.
The American Textile Partnership is a collaborative research and development program among industry, government, and academia aimed at strengthening the competitiveness of the U. Another continuing challenge for the industry will be compliance with stricter environmental regulations. Recycling is already an issue and processes are under development to manufacture yarn from scrap material, including denim. Yarn producers will have to incorporate pollution prevention measures to meet the air and water quality restrictions.
Equipment manufactures will continue to play an important role in this endeavor. Genetic engineering will become more widely used for developing fibers with unique properties. Researchers have developed genetically-altered cotton plants, whose fibers are especially good at retaining warmth.
Each fiber is a blend of normal cotton and small amounts of a natural plastic called polyhydroxybutyrate. It is predicted that dye-binding properties and greater stability will be possible with new fibers in the next generation. New synthetic fibers will also be developed that combine the best qualities of two different polymers. Some of these fibers will be produced through a chemical process, whereas others will be generated biologically by using yeast, bacteria, or fungi.
Needles, H. Textile Fibers, Dyes, Finishes, and Processes. Clune, Ray. Isaacs, McAllister. Weiss, Rick.
Download PDF Version. A spinning system in which yarn is made by wrapping fibers around a core stream of fibers with compressed air. The porosity, or the ease with which air passes through material. Air permeability determines such factors as the wind resistance of sailcloth, the air resistance of parachute cloth, and the efficiency of various types of air filtration media.
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Yarn consists of several strands of material twisted together. Each strand is, in turn, made of fibers, all shorter than the piece of yarn that they form. These short fibers are spun into longer filaments to make the yarn. Long continuous strands may only require additional twisting to make them into yarns. Sometimes they are put through an additional process called texturing. The characteristics of spun yarn depend, in part, on the amount of twist given to the fibers during spinning. A fairly high degree of twist produces strong yarn; a low twist produces softer, more lustrous yarn; and a very tight twist produces crepe yarn.
Yarns can be described as single, or one-ply; ply, plied, or folded; or as cord, including cable and hawser types. Single , or one-ply, yarns are single strands composed of fibres held together by at least a small amount of twist; or of filaments grouped together either with or without twist; or of narrow strips of material; or of single man-made filaments extruded in sufficient thickness for use alone as yarn monofilaments. Single yarns of the spun type, composed of many short fibres, require twist to hold them together and may be made with either S-twist or Z-twist. Single yarns are used to make the greatest variety of fabrics. Ply, plied, or folded, yarns are composed of two or more single yarns twisted together. Two-ply yarn, for example, is composed of two single strands; three-ply yarn is composed of three single strands. In making ply yarns from spun strands, the individual strands are usually each twisted in one direction and are then combined and twisted in the opposite direction. When both the single strands and the final ply yarns are twisted in the same direction, the fibre is firmer, producing harder texture and reducing flexibility. Ply yarns provide strength for heavy industrial fabrics and are also used for delicate-looking sheer fabrics. Cord yarns are produced by twisting ply yarns together, with the final twist usually applied in the opposite direction of the ply twist.
We can always guarantee the ecological sustainability of our garments, because we have developed our own global textile and manufacturing supply chain. By monitoring our source materials and the recycling process in detail, we can ensure that the quality of our products meets the standards of our clients and their customers. With the help of the best experts and suppliers in the industry, we have reached a level of textile quality that is the same, and in many cases better, than that of traditional fabrics.
Standard Industrial Classification Manual. United States. Every identifiable industry in the U. These codes are called Standard Industrial Classification codes and this manual contains them all. The codes relate to an organizational system used by many professionals such as bankers, accountants, economists, and many more. Division A Agriculture forestry and fishing. Titles and Descriptions of IndustriesCon Psge. Division F Wholesale trade. Division G Retail trade Division H Finance insurance and real estate.
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Fiber reinforcement forms
Fibers used to reinforce composites are supplied directly by fiber manufacturers and indirectly by converters in a number of different forms, which vary depending on the application. Here's a guide to what's available. The automated FPP line left produces dry unidirectional carbon fiber patches that are precision-placed onto a 6-axis robotically articulated tool white arm at right by a 4-axis kinematic robot black armature in center. Cevotec imports digital files prepared for specialty kiteboards into its own software to design local reinforcements that will meet both the kiteboard geometry and manufacturing process requirements as well as achieve the desired customer-specified performance improvements. Source: Cevotec. Relatively new, thin, biaxial reinforcements called C-PLY pictured here were used to form the quarter-scale VX-1 KittyHawk UAV's airframe, which features wings that smoothly blend into an airfoil-shaped fuselage. Source: VX Aerospace. Register Here. Roving and tow. Roving is the simplest and most common form of glass fiber.
Types of yarn
ASTM's textile standards provide the specifications and test methods for the physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of textiles, fabrics, and cloths, as well as the natural and artificial fibers that constitute them. The textiles covered by these standards are commonly formed by weaving, knitting, or spinning together fibers such as glass fiber strands, wool and other animal fibers, cotton and other plant-derived fibers, yarn, sewing threads, and mohair, to name a few. These textile standards help fabric and cloth designers and manufacturers in testing textiles to ensure acceptable characteristics towards proper end-use.
Continuous and scalable manufacture of amphibious energy yarns and textiles
Mills End Yarn. We also extend our services to offer people another option for custom processing their fibre. In our regular tours, visitors marvel at our antique machines humming away as they work their magic to turn bales of the finest Australian merino wool into yarns in the vibrant colours for which we have become famous. After the cottage mills started experimenting, we have now come to offer other types of core spun yarn.
Голубая линия посреди пола провела их на несколько сотен метров и повернула налево - к далекому перекрестку. - Ну и как, идем вдоль. - спросил Макс у Роберта. - А почему бы и .
По-моему, ты увлекаешься. Только из того, что они сумели создать генетическим путем живые съемочные камеры, вовсе не следует.