In , mechanical and plant engineering was again the most important driver of German industry growth. Nominal turnover increased to EUR billion — a new record that contributed considerably to the upturn in the German economy. This landmark project is ushering in a new age of decentralized production that is transforming industry. Machinery and equipment is one of the technological motors that drives Germany as a high-tech nation and combines all of the key future technologies including electronics, robotics, materials, and software. These companies produce customized products and small production series to meet international manufacturing industry demand.
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The battle for attention is over. The time for banging drums is long past. Everyone now understands that manufacturing provides an essential source of competitive leverage.
It is […]. It is now time for concrete action on a practical level: action to change facilities, update processing technologies, adjust work-force practices, and perfect information and management systems. But when managers turn to these tasks, they quickly run up against a stumbling block. Namely, they do not have adequate measures for judging factory-level performance or for comparing overall performance from one facility to the next.
Of course, they can use the traditional cost-accounting figures, but these figures often do not tell them what they really need to know. Worse, even the best numbers do not sufficiently reflect the important contributions that managers can make by reducing confusion in the system and promoting organizational learning. Consider the experience of a U. The study generated reams of data, but the senior executive in charge of the activity still felt uneasy.
He feared that the group was getting mired in details and that things other than managerial practices—like the age of facilities and their location—might be the primary drivers of performance. How to tell? Differences in these standards made comparisons across plants difficult. What was more troubling, the system did not easily capture the trade-offs among factors of production or consider the role played by capital equipment or materials.
What to do? Another manufacturer—this time of paper products—found quite different patterns of learning in the same departments of five of its plants scattered across the United States. Although each department made much the same products using similar equipment and materials, they varied widely in performance over a period of years.
Why such differences? They also need a dependable metric for identifying and measuring such differences and a framework for thinking about how to improve their performance—and keep it improving. This is no easy order. These issues led us to embark on a continuing, multiyear study of 12 factories in 3 companies see the appendix for details on research methodology.
There are three basic approaches for identifying the effects of management actions and policies on factory-level productivity: first, a longitudinal analysis, which looks at a single factory over a long time; second, a cross-sectional analysis, which compares the performance at the same time of two or more factories that make similar products and have similar manufacturing processes; and third, a combined approach, which collects several years, worth of data for factories having a variety of structural characteristics and uses statistical analysis to identify the effects of what managers do.
We have used all three methods. For each factory, we gathered data on a monthly basis for at least one-and-a-half years and usually for more than five. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to explore in such depth the sources of productivity growth at the factory level in the United States, and our data base is the most comprehensive yet compiled.
To estimate labor input, we relied on total hours of work in each major employee classification direct labor, indirect labor, and so forth ; to estimate capital input, we used the book value of assets adjusted for inflation; and to estimate materials input, we deflated the dollar values of materials consumption by a materials price index based on dollars. We then combined these partial measures into an index of overall total factor productivity TFP.
To separate the movements in TFP linked to changes in production capacity from those linked to changes in operating efficiency, we included an estimate of capacity utilization in all regression analyses. All the Hi-Tech plants learned at a very high rate, although productivity growth in the early months was anything but fast or smooth, and some plants seemed to learn faster than others. This disparity in performance is not limited to comparisons across companies.
Even within a company, productivity growth differed significantly across plants—even where each produced identical products and faced the same market and technological conditions. We cannot explain these differences by reference to technology, product variety, or market demands—they have to do with management. Some of the anomalies we found resulted from errors in the data provided us; others were caused by certain events the advent of the deer-hunting season, for example, or a year-end peak in purchased materials.
After developing credible TFP estimates, we had to identify and measure those managerial policies that might have an impact on TFP.
The Table lists these policies and describes the measures we used to capture them. Using multiple linear regression analysis, we first examined the effect of these policy variables on TFP in the same factory over time. Early findings, coupled with discussions with a number of managers, suggested that the simple ratios and averages we were using did not adequately capture the phenomena we were trying to understand.
Actions like overhauling older equipment, training workers, and implementing an engineering change order are similar in nature to investments—that is, they will likely cause short-term inefficiencies. To test the long-term effects of such actions, we included lagged variables, which allowed us to estimate the effect on TFP of management actions taken in previous months.
Other management activities may have little effect on productivity unless they are held at a certain level for several months. Boosting the amount spent on maintaining equipment, for example, does not do much if sustained for only one month. In these cases, we looked at the relationship between TFP and a five-month moving average of relevant management variables. For still other activities—a profound change, say, in production rates—it matters greatly if the change is highly unusual or is part of a pattern of widely fluctuating rates.
A last, brief note about the importance of combining statistical analysis with ongoing field research. We found immense value in discussing our findings with the managers involved. We expected, for example, that equipment maintenance and work-force training would share a positive relationship to productivity growth.
Our plant data, however, revealed a consistently negative relationship: high expenditures on maintenance and training, even in lagged forms, generally were associated with low TFP. When we talked about this with plant managers in all three companies, we discovered that they used maintenance and training as corrective measures.
That is, they boosted maintenance in response to equipment problems; when the problems were solved, they reduced it. By themselves, the data would not allow us to separate corrective from preventive maintenance, or even from the costs of modifying or rebuilding equipment.
The first company we looked at, which employs a highly connected and automated manufacturing process, we refer to as the Process Company. Another, which employs a batch approach based on a disconnected line-flow organization of work, we refer to as the Fab fabrication-assembly Company. The third, which uses several different batch processes to make components for sophisticated electronic systems, is characterized by very rapid changes in both product and process.
We refer to it as the Hi-Tech Company. All five factories of the Process Company and three of the four factories of the Fab Company are in the United States the fourth is just across the border in Canada.
In none of these companies did the usual profit-and-loss statements—or the familiar monthly operating reports—provide adequate, up-to-date information about factory performance. Certainly, managers routinely evaluated such performance, but the metrics they used made their task like that of watching a distant activity through a thick, fogged window. Indeed, the measurement systems in place at many factories obscure and even alter the details of their performance.
The variances from these standard costs became the basis for problem identification and performance evaluation. Other departments in the plants kept track of head counts, work-in-process inventory, engineering changes, the value of newly installed equipment, reject rates, and so forth. In theory, this kind of measurement system should take a diverse range of activities and summarize them in a way that clarifies what is going on.
It should act like a lens that brings a blurry picture into sharp focus. Each month, most of the managers we worked with received a blizzard of variance reports but no overall measure of efficiency.
Yet this measure is not hard to calculate. In our study, we took the same data generated by plant managers and combined them into a measure of the total factor productivity TFP —the ratio of total output to total input see the appendix for more details on TFP.
This approach helps dissipate some of the fog—especially because our TFP data are presented in constant dollars instead of the usual current dollars.
Doing so cuts through the distortions produced by periods of high inflation. In real terms, however, there was a steep and significant decline in unit output. Another advantage of the TFP approach is that it integrates the contributions of all the factors of production into a single measure of total input. Traditional systems offer no such integration. Moreover, they often overlook important factors. One of the plant managers at the Process Company gauged performance in a key department by improvements in labor hours and wage costs.
Conscientious efforts to prune labor content by installing equipment—without developing the management skills and systems needed to realize its full potential—proved shortsighted. The managers we studied focused heavily on these costs; indeed, their systems for measuring direct labor were generally more detailed and extensive than those for measuring other inputs that were several times more costly. Just as surprising, the companies we studied paid little attention to the effect of materials consumption or productivity.
Early on, we asked managers at one of the Fab plants for data on materials consumed in production during each of a series of months. Using these data to estimate materials productivity gave us highly erratic values. Investigation showed that this plant, like many others, kept careful records of materials purchased but not of the direct or indirect materials actually consumed in a month.
The latter, which includes things like paper forms, showed up only in a catchall manufacturing overhead account. Further, most of the factories recorded materials transactions only in dollar, rather than in physical, terms and did not readily adjust their standard costs figures when inflation or substitution altered materials prices.
Every year or half-year, managers would reconcile this estimated consumption with actual materials usage, based on a physical count. As a result, data on actual materials consumption in any one period were lost.
Finally, the TFP approach makes clear the difference between the data that managers see and what those data actually measure. In one plant, the controller argued that our numbers on engineering changes were way off base. He said that the controller reviewed only very large in dollar terms engineering changes and that our data were quite accurate. He was right. The plant had been tracking all engineering changes, not just the major changes reported to the controller.
With the foglike distortions of poor measurement systems cleared away, we were able to identify the real levers for improving factory performance. But a handful of managerial policies and practices consistently turned up as significant.
Across industries, companies, and plants, they regularly exerted a powerful influence on productivity. In short, these are the managerial actions that make a difference. Our data show unequivocally that capital investment in new equipment is essential to sustaining growth in TFP over a long time that is, a decade or more. But they also show that capital investment all too often reduces TFP for up to a year. Simply investing money in new technology or systems guarantees nothing. What matters is how their introduction is managed, as well as the extent to which they support and reinforce continual improvement throughout a factory.
The Process Company committed itself to providing new, internally designed equipment to meet the needs of a rapidly growing product.
These incremental adjustments added up to major growth in TFP. Seeking new business, the Fab company redesigned an established product and purchased the equipment needed to make it.
Then, we use the most common questions we hear from engineers to identify key functionalities. Sources Products evaluated for the pricing calculation were taken from Capterra's simulation tools directory. Find out what software is easy to use, and will help you build your own personal paradise. The basic design principles and optimal process stages of multiple stage evaporation and crystallization processes will be considered. The listing contains free software, paid software, apps, and screensavers. Chemical Reaction.
Building Science Concepts
The battle for attention is over. The time for banging drums is long past. Everyone now understands that manufacturing provides an essential source of competitive leverage. It is […]. It is now time for concrete action on a practical level: action to change facilities, update processing technologies, adjust work-force practices, and perfect information and management systems. But when managers turn to these tasks, they quickly run up against a stumbling block.
Cement In Iraq
Kesik, Ph. This resource page is the first of a series on relevant topics in building science. It focuses on the systems approach to building technology and the utility of building science to advance the high-performance building agenda. It should be recognized that prior to the introduction of the systems approach to the discipline of building science, most of research and practice dealt with construction materials and components. The consideration of the entire building system, or in some instances sub-systems, did not emerge until the limits of a less holistic approach became painfully obvious in the form of building defects and failures.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: G&L GUITARS FACTORY TOUR!
Cement In Iraq. Demonstrators prevented government employees getting to work in Basra by installing concrete barriers painted as mock-up coffins of relatives killed in weeks of unrest, a Reuters witness said. The process of forming a new government in either country would take months, and without. Get this from a library! Concrete hell : urban warfare from Stalingrad to Iraq. By the end of the day, six anti-government protesters were killed more than wounded. This page provides a listing of the latest Cement jobs and careers for the Gulf and Middle East found on Bayt. Hundreds of thousands in cities and in the provinces have poured into the streets, often risking their lives to demand the complete dismantling of the current. The contract is a full EPC order, comprising engineering, all FLSmidth equipment supplies, erection and construction, as well as commissioning and training once completed. Preserving Iraq's cultural mosaic, and promoting the benefits of pluralism, are essential to preventing future atrocities, securing a more peaceful nation, and providing a foundation for economic recovery.
Machinery and equipment defined
Oxford Instruments plc, a leading provider of high-technology solutions, information and services for industry and research, was…. Oxford Instruments is a leading provider of high technology tools and systems for research and industry. We design and manufacture equipment that can fabricate, analyse and manipulate matter at the atomic and molecular level.
Our mission is to help leaders in multiple sectors develop a deeper understanding of the global economy. Our flagship business publication has been defining and informing the senior-management agenda since As automation technologies such as machine learning and robotics play an increasingly great role in everyday life, their potential effect on the workplace has, unsurprisingly, become a major focus of research and public concern. In fact, as our research has begun to show, the story is more nuanced. While automation will eliminate very few occupations entirely in the next decade, it will affect portions of almost all jobs to a greater or lesser degree, depending on the type of work they entail. Automation, now going beyond routine manufacturing activities, has the potential, as least with regard to its technical feasibility, to transform sectors such as healthcare and finance, which involve a substantial share of knowledge work. These conclusions rest on our detailed analysis of 2,plus work activities for more than occupations. The full results, forthcoming in early , will include several other countries, 1 1. Last year, we showed that currently demonstrated technologies could automate 45 percent of the activities people are paid to perform and that about 60 percent of all occupations could see 30 percent or more of their constituent activities automated, again with technologies available today.
Future Factory: How Technology Is Transforming Manufacturing
Biology and medicine; training, education, and information; Plowshare; isotopes development; physical research; communities; and AEC administrative programs. United States. Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. Subcommittee on Legislation. National Laboratory costs for of heat transfer facility Tuesday February 25 Mathematics and computer research. Wednesday February 26 Radiation processing.
PCE Instruments UK: Test Instruments
PCE Instruments PCE is an international supplier of test instruments, tools and equipment for measuring, weighing and control systems. Founded by German engineers nearly two decades ago, PCE offers more than test instruments with applications in industrial engineering and process control, manufacturing quality assurance, scientific research, trade industries and beyond. In addition, PCE can provide custom test instruments on demand. PCE serves customers from government, industry and academia in diverse fields such as acoustical engineering, aerospace, agriculture, archaeology, architecture, automotive, aviation, bioengineering, building inspection, chemistry, civil engineering, computer science, construction, data acquisition, education, electrical engineering, energy, environmental science, food processing, forensics, forestry, geology, government, horticulture, HVAC, hydrology, industrial hygiene, law enforcement, library science, logistics, machining, maintenance, manufacturing, materials science, mechanical engineering, metal working, meteorology, military, mining, nondestructive testing NDT , occupational health and safety, oil and gas, pharmaceuticals, property management, pulp and paper, physics, robotics, structural engineering, supply chain, transportation, tribology, veterinary science, water treatment, welding, woodworking and more. Test instruments can be found in research laboratories as well as in places like automobile repair shops, construction job sites and manufacturing facilities. Test instruments are used in trade industries for troubleshooting as well as for routine inspections of systems and equipment. Everyday consumers also need accurate, affordable test instruments for evaluating home energy efficiency, monitoring wind conditions for outdoor recreational activities, checking soil moisture levels in the garden, and more. For these types of applications, PCE Instruments offers a number of easy-to-use test instruments — no expert knowledge required. PCE's devices are of the highest industry standards, and are used for quality control and product testing in industrial settings, scientific research facilities, commercial businesses, government institutions, professional sports and recreation venues, and military operations.
Cement Manufacturing Process
The reasons for planning a small scale poultry processing plant in the tropics usually come about as a consequence of a desire to make improvements on an existing system. The first stage of planning therefore, is to collect information regarding the exact nature of the project in terms of numbers of slaughterstock to be processed, management system required, costs of materials, services and labour, attitudes of the local population, markets to be served, type of product to be prepared, methods of waste disposal, availability of building materials, equipment and spare parts, specialised labour requirements, indeed everything required to complete a feasibility study. The feasibility study is usually conducted by technical and financial personnel.
The production of cement is started from quarrying the raw material. The main raw materials are limestone, basalt, sand stone, pumice, gypsum.
While this may sound like science fiction, these kinds of factories have been a reality for more than 15 years. To imagine a world where robots do all the physical work, one simply needs to look at the most ambitious and technology-laden factories of today.
Instrumentation is a collective term for measuring instruments that are used for indicating, measuring and recording physical quantities such as flow, temperature, level, distance, angle, or pressure. The term has its origins in the art and science of scientific instrument-making. Instrumentation can refer to devices as simple as direct-reading thermometers , or as complex as multi-sensor components of industrial control systems. Today, instruments can be found in laboratories, refineries, factories and vehicles, as well as in everyday household use e.