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Textile Reinforced Structural Composites for Advanced ApplicationsVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: RCD:- Beam design / design of single reinforced concrete beam section
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Published in: Engineering , Business. Full Name Comment goes here. Are you sure you want to Yes No. It's Not a BUG? Show More. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares. Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Prefabrication 1. Definition :Definition : Prefabrication is the practice of assembling components of a structurep g p in a factory or other manufacturing site, and transporting complete assemblies or sub-assemblies to the construction site where the structure is to be locatedstructure is to be located.
Meaning :Meaning : The assembly of buildings or their components at a location otherThe assembly of buildings or their components at a location other than the building site.
The method controls construction costs by economizing on time, d i lwages, and materials. Prefabricated units may include doors, stairs, window, walls, wall panels, floor panels, roof trusses, room-sized components, andpanels, floor panels, roof trusses, room sized components, and even entire buildings.
The term is used to distinguish this process from the more l f h bconventional construction practice of transporting the basic material to the construction site where all assembly is carried out. Components manufactured under controlled conditions. The speed of construction is increased since no curing period is necessary. Prefabrication helps in the use of locally available materials with required h i i lik li h i hcharacteristics like light-weight; easy workability, thermal insulation, non- combustibility etccombustibility, etc.
Disadvantages :Disadvantages : Careful handling of prefabricated components such as concrete panels or steel and glass panels is required. Attention has to be paid to the strength and corrosion-resistance of theAttention has to be paid to the strength and corrosion-resistance of the joining of prefabricated sections to avoid failure of the joint. Similarly, leaks can form at joints in prefabricated components. Transportation costs may be higher for voluminous prefabricated sections than for the materials of which they are made, which can often be packed more compactlybe packed more compactly.
Large prefabricated sections require heavy-duty cranes and precision measurement and handling to place in position. The structural system could be in the form of f k l d b llin-situ framework or load bearing walls. The filler walls may be of bricks or any other local material. The components such as Precast concrete large panels for wallsThe components such as Precast concrete large panels for walls, floors, roofs, balconies, staircase, etc.
The casting of the components could be at the site or off the site. Longitudinal Wall System - In this scheme the cross walls are non-load bearing whereas Longitudinal walls are load bearing walls. This system is suitable for low rise buildings. A combination of the above system with all load bearing walls can also be adopted. The flights are normally unidirectional transferring the loads to supporting landingg pp g g slabs or load bearing walls.
Toilets and kitchen blocks also be similarly prefabricated and erected at site. This system derives its stability and stiffness from the box unit which are formed by the four adjacent walls. Walls are jointed to make rigid connections among themselves.
The box unit rests on the plinth foundation which may be of conventionalrests on the plinth foundation which may be of conventional type or precast type. Practicability -Practicability of joint shall be determined by the amount and type of Material, fabrication and erection and the time for fabrication and erectionfabrication and erection.
Fire-Proofing - Appearance -Appearance Overlapping reinforcement loops and linking steelOverlapping reinforcement, loops and linking steel grouted by concrete. Reinforced concrete ties all round a slabReinforced concrete ties all round a slab.
Epoxy groutingEpoxy grouting. Bolts and nuts connection, and A combination of the aboveA combination of the above. Components Fixing and Jointing :Components Fixing and Jointing : A h b i b ilt ithA house being built with prefabricated concrete panels The steel formwork for the core wall construction. Prefabricated wall panels being installed in public housing Installing and fixing the precast facades into positioninto position Used in — Rib Slab, beams, Girders window panels, box type units and special elements.
Used in — roof slabs, concrete walls, panels and beams. LimitationsLimitations of Prefabricationof Prefabrication 1. Small number of units required may prove to be uneconomical.
Special connections, such as special bearings to t it th ti l d h i t l l d ddtransmit the vertical and horizontal loads, can add cost to the system. Waterproofing at joints. Transportation difficulties. Need for cranes. You just clipped your first slide! Clipping is a handy way to collect important slides you want to go back to later. Now customize the name of a clipboard to store your clips. Visibility Others can see my Clipboard.
Etabs Steel Detailing. Austin Detailing offers only the highest quality products. Steel Frame Design b. Draw Detailing of Concrete and Steel Structure.
Textile-reinforced composites are increasingly used in various industries such as aerospace, construction, automotive, medicine, and sports due to their distinctive advantages over traditional materials such as metals and ceramics. Fiber-reinforced composite materials are lightweight, stiff, and strong. They have good fatigue and impact resistance. Their directional and overall properties can be tailored to fulfill specific needs of different end uses by changing constituent material types and fabrication parameters such as fiber volume fraction and fiber architecture. A variety of fiber architectures can be obtained by using two- 2D and three-dimensional 3D fabric production techniques such as weaving, knitting, braiding, stitching, and nonwoven methods. This chapter highlights the constituent materials, fabric formation techniques, production methods, as well as application areas of textile-reinforced composites.
Structural Drafting. Heavy arch ribs designed to resist axial force and bending. Whereas mechanical drawing used to be taught to students in high school and college, many engineers now arrive in the profession with no training in a skill that is essential for communication of their design intent to others. Structural steel beams placed at 4' on center with a steel deck spanning perpendicular which will have 4" of concrete placed on top of the steel deck is not a composite system.
Thousands of years ago, pre-humans built the first bridge. It was a simple log or boulder placed over a small stream or ravine. It would have helped keep the feet of nomads dry while traveling from one location to another. Bridges have gotten much more complicated since then. Abutment: Abutments are the elements at the ends of a bridge, which provide support for it. They absorb many of the forces placed on the bridge and act as retaining walls that prevent the earth under the approach to the bridge from moving. Bridges featuring arches were among the earliest large-scale engineering and construction projects. Arch bridges can span vast areas because they transform the forces affecting them into compressive stresses, which eliminates tensile stresses.
There are numerous methods for fabricating composite components. Selection of a method for a particular part, therefore, will depend on the materials, the part design and end-use or application. Here's a guide to selection. Vacuum infusion has found significant application in boatbuilding, because it permits fabricators to infuse entire hulls, deck structures and planar contoured parts in a single step.
Lightweight concretes can either be lightweight aggregate concrete, foamed concrete or autoclaved aerated concrete AAC. Lightweight concrete blocks are often used in house construction. Lightweight aggregate concrete can be produced using a variety of lightweight aggregates. Lightweight aggregates originate from either:. The required properties of the lightweight concrete will have a bearing on the best type of lightweight aggregate to use. If little structural requirement, but high thermal insulation properties, are needed then a light, weak aggregate can be used. This will result in relatively low strength concrete. Foamed concrete is a highly workable, low-density material which can incorporate up to 75 per cent entrained air. It is generally self-levelling, self-compacting and may be pumped. Foamed concrete is ideal for filling redundant voids such as disused fuel tanks, sewer systems, pipelines, and culverts - particularly where access is difficult. It is a recognised medium for the reinstatement of temporary road trenches.
Rcc Staircase Steel Design. Accordingly, this chapter gives a general introduction to reinforced concrete and its applications. It yields rigid members with minimum apparent deflection. US Steel Stairs is a professional steel detailing company specializing in stairs. A variety of materials are used in curved staircase design, the vast majority of woods combine well with stainless steel, while concrete is also a popular choice for curved stair design. Spring steels can. Our steel stairs can come with stair treads and landings made of closed diamond plate, bar grating, serrated bar grating, grip strut and also with pans for you to pour concrete in. Reinforcing steel, commonly called rebar, has generally 40, or 60, psi yield strength. T and L-Beams 7.
How To Read Structural Reinforcement Drawings
Reinforced concrete RC also called reinforced cement concrete or RCC is a composite material in which concrete 's relatively low tensile strength and ductility are counteracted by the inclusion of reinforcement having higher tensile strength or ductility. The reinforcement is usually, though not necessarily, steel reinforcing bars rebar and is usually embedded passively in the concrete before the concrete sets. Modern reinforced concrete can contain varied reinforcing materials made of steel, polymers or alternate composite material in conjunction with rebar or not. Reinforced concrete may also be permanently stressed concrete in compression, reinforcement in tension , so as to improve the behaviour of the final structure under working loads. In the United States, the most common methods of doing this are known as pre-tensioning and post-tensioning.
The design process encompasses the architectural design, the development of the structural concept , the analysis of the steel structure and the verification of members. Steel solutions are lighter than their concrete equivalents, with the opportunity to provide more column-free flexible floor space, less foundations and a fast, safe construction programme. For the designer, a steel solution means reliable materials, assured material and section properties , precise off-site manufacture and extensive support including software, design guides and easy to use resistance tables. Main articles: Concept design , Steel material properties.
As the electrode melts, it supplies weld material which fuses the pieces of steel together. The Architect is usually employed by and represents the Owner.
Concrete slab floors come in many forms and can be used to provide great thermal comfort and lifestyle advantages. Slabs can be on-ground, suspended, or a mix of both.