Oriented strand board OSB is a type of engineered wood similar to particle board , formed by adding adhesives and then compressing layers of wood strands flakes in specific orientations. It was invented by Armin Elmendorf in California in OSB is a material with favorable mechanical properties that make it particularly suitable for load-bearing applications in construction. For exterior wall applications, panels are available with a radiant-barrier layer pre-laminated to one side; this eases installation and increases energy performance of the building envelope. OSB also sees some use in furniture production.
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Looking for related documents? Search for related documents in the Guidance Document Repository. This directive outlines the phytosanitary import requirements for the following products originating from all areas of the world other than the continental United States U. The directive has been revised to clarify existing phytosanitary requirements for wooden and bamboo products. The phytosanitary import requirements for wood dunnage, pallets, crating and other wood packaging material such as wooden barrels used to transport other materials e.
This directive will be updated as required. Amendments of this directive will be dated and distributed as outlined in the distribution list below. Canada regulates the import of non-processed wood, wood products, bamboo and bamboo products to reduce the risk of introduction and spread of pests of concern to Canadian agriculture, forestry and the environment.
Many invasive forest pests, including pine shoot beetle Tomicus piniperda , emerald ash borer Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire , and chestnut blight Cryphonectria parasitica , have been introduced into and spread within North America as a result of the movement of untreated wood or bamboo products. These pests have had extensive economic and environmental impacts. Bark that is present on wooden products can harbor pests including surface pathogens and bark beetles.
Heat treatment, chemical treatment or debarking will remove the risks associated with bark, although debarking alone will not remove deep wood-boring pests. Untreated wooden commodities with bark originating from off-continent temperate areas present a high risk for introducing quarantine pests into Canada.
Therefore, entry of such commodities from off-continent is prohibited. Wood and bamboo products regulated under this directive are potential pathways for the movement of quarantine pests. Specific phytosanitary import requirements are based on the scientific evaluation of the nature of each product, product end-use, and pest risk mitigating factors.
The phytosanitary import requirements including the use of pre-entry treatments outlined in this directive have been established to reduce the risk of or lower the potential for introduction into Canada of pests associated with imported wood and bamboo products.
RSPM No. D, Phytosanitary import requirements for fresh and dried branches, cut flowers and other plant parts for ornamental purposes. D,The import requirements for wood dunnage, pallets, crating, wood shavings, sawdust and wood wool as part of wood packaging, or other wood packaging materials from areas of the world other than the continental U. For the purpose of this directive, wood and wooden products; and bamboo and bamboo products under consideration are defined as:.
The CFIA may take action on material that is infested with pests of potential quarantine concern even if those pests are not yet included on this list. All countries, except the continental U. Please note that regulated commodities re-exported to Canada from the continental U. Processed wood materials that have been subjected to conditions that have altered the commodity in a manner to reduce significantly the ability of the wood items to provide a habitat for pests, such as:.
All of the above commodities must be free of living pests, free of signs of living pests, and free of soil and debris. Exempted commodities are still subject to inspection at the time of entry into Canada. All commodities imported under this directive must meet the specific phytosanitary requirements prescribed below.
Consignments may be subject to inspection and must be:. Wood turning blanks are blocks of sawn wood intended to be shaped on a lathe to manufacture wooden objects such as bowls, spindles, etc. When the country of re-export requires a Phytosanitary Certificate for the import of the commodity and the Phytosanitary Certificate specifies a treatment meeting Canada's import requirements, a Phytosanitary Certificate for Re-export issued by the NPPO of the re-exporting country is required.
The re-exporting country must verify that the Canadian phytosanitary import requirements for the regulated commodity have been met in the country of origin. When the country of re-export does not require a phytosanitary certificate for the import of the commodity, the commodity must be treated and certified by the re-exporting country to meet Canadian import requirements.
In this case:. Note: A Fumigation Certificate or Heat Treatment Certificate in lieu of providing the treatment details in the Phytosanitary Certificate will not be accepted. It is the responsibility of the importer to ensure that the heat treatment certificate, treatment document, or fumigation certificate is clearly linked to the imported shipment. When the country of re-export requires a Phytosanitary Certificate for the original import of tropical sawn wood, and the consignment meets Canada's phytosanitary import requirements, a Phytosanitary Certificate for Re-export may be issued.
When the country of re-export does not require a Phytosanitary Certificate for the import of tropical sawn wood, the CFIA import requirements may be fulfilled with an additional visual inspection based on the inspection criteria listed below:. As part of the approval process, a pest risk assessment is required to evaluate the plant health risk posed by the commodity, to determine the efficacy of proposed treatment options and to identify any known pests potentially associated with the wood including bacteria and phytoplasmas, fungi, viruses, nematodes, insects, mites, molluscs and weeds and the potential to introduce those pests.
If required, the CFIA may recognize private or government treatment facilities in the exporting country operating under a system acceptable to the CFIA e. Non-compliant material found to be infested with a pest or found to have signs or symptoms of live pests may be treated prior to it being ordered removed from Canada or disposed of in a manner approved by the CFIA. Notification of non-compliance will be issued and emergency action will be taken in accordance with Directive D, Canadian phytosanitary policy for the notification of non-compliance and emergency action.
It is the responsibility of the importer to check whether the tropical or non-tropical wood species being imported is listed under CITES. If so, additional permits from Environment Canada may be required. Canada is a signatory of The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer agreeing to the reduction and eventual phase out of methyl bromide use.
The CFIA encourages the use of alternative treatments. The CFIA may permit the movement of non compliant wood and wood products to be disposed of or treated in the following ways:. Non compliant wood and wood products, and bamboo and bamboo products must be disposed of by the importer and under the direct oversight of the CFIA within two 2 business days of detection of non-compliance.
However, under exceptional circumstances the CFIA may permit short-term storage, while waiting for disposal. In order to permit short term storage, the non-compliant material must be contained in a manner that would preclude the escape of pests. The method of short-term storage must be approved in writing by a CFIA inspector. Additionally, the CFIA inspector can order additional treatments or containment of the non-compliant products if required.
The movement of non-compliant material must be authorized by the CFIA. During transportation for disposal, non-compliant material must be carried in a sealed container or be enclosed by a tarpaulin to provide assurance that soil contaminants and pests cannot be lost or freed while on route to the disposal area.
Report a problem on this page. Bark, bark chips, cants, round wood of tropical or non-tropical species, railway ties, telephone poles, sawn wood with bark, wood chips, cut Christmas trees. Turning blanks blocks of sawn wood shaped on a lathe to manufacture wooden objects such as bowls, spindles, etc. Wooden handicrafts or decorative wood products containing wood greater than 1. Driftwood and artificial Christmas trees with wooden components or bark. Free of pests and signs of living pests, and Contact Health Canada for other requirements.
Bamboo products baskets, decorative items, bird cages, etc. Bamboo laminates including highly processed bamboo products such as flooring, panels, veneers, etc. Antiaris toxicaria var. Aspidosperma curranii Aspidosperma megalocarpon subsp. Magnolia tsiampacca subsp.
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Oriented strand board
Lightweight framed construction is the most common construction system in Australia. The two most commonly used framing materials — steel and timber — can contribute to the comfort, appeal and environmental performance of your home. Although lightweight framed construction can be used for floors, walls and roofs, the focus of this article is on wall systems. Timber from sustainable sources provides a renewable building material that takes in carbon from the atmosphere while growing and stores it for the life of the building. Its greatest enemy is the termite, although rot and mould from condensation is becoming an increasingly critical threat as we seal our homes and increase insulation levels. Steel-framed construction began to be adopted in the s and continues to gain popularity.
Plywood is an assemblage of wood veneers bonded together to produce a flat sheet. While it can be tailored to suit an extensive range of applications, the normal product consists of at least 3 plies, with the grain in the alternate plies running at right angles. There are four groupings of plywood products, with each group designed for specific applications:. Increased stability Plywood offers all the inherent advantages of the parent wood plus enhanced properties in its laminated structure.
Interior finishes and space-division systems define the living spaces within residential buildings with a range of both natural and synthetic materials. The most widely used wall finish is gypsum board , a prefabricated form of traditional wet plaster. Wet gypsum plaster is cast between paper facings to form large panels that are nailed to light timber or metal frameworks. The joints between the panels are filled with a hard-setting resin compound , giving a smooth seamless surface that has considerable fire resistance. Gypsum board forms the substrate to which a number of other materials, including thin wood-veneered plywood and vinyl fabrics, can be applied with adhesives. In wet areas such as kitchens and bathrooms, water-resistant gypsum board is used, sometimes with the addition of adhesive-applied ceramic tile. Doors in residential buildings are usually of the hollow-core type, with thin veneers of wood glued over a honeycomb paper core and solid wood edge strips; door frames are typically made of machined timber shapes. Plastic laminates bonded to particleboard are extensively used for built-in cabinets and countertops. The most common floor finish is carpeting , most of which is now made of synthetic fibres, displacing the traditional wool and cotton. It can be easily maintained, and its soft visual and tactile texture, as well as its sound-absorbing qualities, make it attractive for residential use.
Lining, Sheathing & Sarking Boards
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For some years now, wood has received an increasing amount of attention in the construction industry. However, it is the versatility of wood that serves as the primary impetus for its widespread use. In the case of the manufacture of furniture, wall coverings, ceilings, and even floors, the use of boards is an economical and functional way of incorporating wood into buildings. There are several options for wooden boards on the market, and each uses a different manufacturing process involving fibers, particles, fragments, or sheets, resulting in specific uses. Next, we select the most commonly used wooden boards, including their characteristics and main uses:. Because the fibers are randomly oriented, the machine can cut them in any direction, delivering a smooth surface to the touch. But they can also be used elsewhere, such as in wall and door claddings. Being compressed under higher pressure, these boards are more resistant, support more weight, and can cover larger extensions. It can be finished with paints and varnishes, but they rarely stick, since the surface is not smooth or uniform. The main advantage of this agglomerate is its low cost. Its uses are similar to MDF, but specific types of hardware and connections must be used to obtain a satisfactory result.
What Architects Need to Know About Specifying Wood Doors
Continuing Education. Learning Objectives - After reading this article, you will be able to:. Doors are a critical part of every building, and there are a plethora of options to satisfy a variety of needs. Today's marketplace is flooded with so many choices in types and styles of wood doors that selecting the right door for a given situation can often be a time-consuming and perplexing process. Yet properly specified doors go a long way to achieving the aesthetic, functional, safety, and environmental requisites that enhance the look and durability of a commercial space. Architects and design professionals who are researching, comparing, selecting, and specifying wood doors should be equipped with an understanding of the basic anatomy of a door, and the function of all constituent parts as well as a knowledge of industry standards that must be met. This article will serve as a primer on wood doors, their components, and construction methods and how to achieve optimum results from the perspective of performance, aesthetic, and environmental concerns.
Wooden Boards: Differences Between MDF, MDP, Plywood, and OSB
Plywood is made by glueing together thin sheets of wood veneer. The thickness of an individual sheet is 0. The sheets are composed so that the directions of the grain of the superimposed sheets are usually perpendicular to each other. In birch plywood board, there is usually an odd number of sheers at least three , so the direction of grain of the surface sheets is always the same. In conifer plywood sheets, the number may also be even. In glueing, weather-resistant phenolic resin adhesive is normally used. In terms of colour, it is considerably darker than veneering wood. Some plywood products are classified in surface material emissions class M1. Material classification includes the limit values for the emissions of building materials meant for interiors, as well as their classification.
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Applicationctober8, ; Serial No. In the manufacture of plywood sheets, the edges of the plywood'sheets are trimmed as a final operation to bring the sheetsto size and to provide straight edges on the sheets.
Один из исследователей - пассажир Рамы II - бежал из Нового Эдема, случайно вступив в контакт с симбиотической парой инопланетных существ, обитавших на корабле во втором поселении - возле землян. Его жена оставалась среди людей, безуспешно пытаясь пробудить в них совесть. Через несколько месяцев ее заключили в тюрьму, обвинили в предательстве и вынесли смертный приговор. Условия и уровень жизни внутри Нового Эдема продолжали ухудшаться, поэтому люди захватили ближайший к ним район в Северном полуцилиндре Рамы и объявили войну на уничтожение соседям: симбиотической паре разумных инопланетян.
Не знаю, в какой чертовой дыре мы находимся, но, как бы то ни было, я рад, что ты со. Эпонина рассмеялась. - В детском доме у меня была подружка, которая мечтала попасть на необитаемый остров с одним известным французским актером (помнишь Марселя Дюбуа?).