Glossary: Sector Classifications. Companies that rear livestock or poultry with the intention of selling them to producers of meat, dairy and other animal related products. Companies that grow crops and plants for sale to food and other products for example tobacco for sale to cigarette manufacturers. Includes seed producers. Companies that catch fish and other sea creatures for example lobsters and crabs for sale to food producers and retailers. Companies that fell trees to manufacture timber and related wood products for sale to the construction industry and manufacturers of paper and furniture.
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- INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION Used in the 2005 Population Census of Japan
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- US3917601A - Sulfosuccinate derivatives as detergent builders - Google Patents
- Soap, Fatty Acids, and Synthetic Detergents
- WO2013009605A1 - Metallic soap compositions for various applications - Google Patents
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Enzymes Enzymes are long-chain proteins that serve as natural catalysts, meaning that they allow chemical reactions to occur rapidly and efficiently. The building blocks for each enzyme are the 20 naturally occurring amino acids. Enzymes are commonly used in paper processing, food manufacture, medical device cleaning, ethanol manufacture, as well as many common household cleaning processes such as laundry and dishwashing.
In laundry and dishwashing, enzymes break down the basic components of stains and soils so they can be washed away more easily. Since one enzyme molecule can act on many substrate molecules such as soils and stains , a small amount of enzyme added to a laundry detergent can provide a significant cleaning benefit to the consumer. Enzyme activities are highly-specific to the types of substrates they can work on.
The catalytic function of each protein is determined by its 3-dimensional structure, as well as active sites that are dedicated to the particular substrate. Enzyme proteins are only active when the specified substrate is present. The various types of actions can be categorized into specific enzyme classes.
The most common enzyme types used in the Household care industry are proteases, amylases, lipase, cellulases, mannanases, and pectinases. Each type may have many variations of the same protein structure that results in different preferences for conditions for peak performance. It has been found beneficial to combine different enzyme types to improve overall stain-fighting performance. Therefore, modern detergents typically contain several enzyme activity types to ensure optimal cleaning of complex soil substrates.
Enzyme products are available in liquid formulations with included stabilization systems for liquid detergent applications and also as encapsulated granulates for powder detergents and soap bars. Proteases Proteases accelerate the breakdown of proteins into peptides and soluble amino acids.
Proteases are basic ingredients in laundry detergents and are used worldwide because of their effectiveness on common stain components, such as food, grass, and blood. Some proteases have an affinity for specific protein soils and the target stain will determine which protease should be added to a detergent formulation. Amylases Amylases accelerate the breakdown of starch-based stains from foods such as such as cereals, gravies, potato and pasta dishes, etc.
In laundry, amylases ensure complete removal of starch at low wash temperatures. Starch is a long chained carbohydrate consisting of glucose molecules bound together by alpha-1,4-glycosidic bonds. During wash, certain amylases catalyze the hydrolysis of alpha-1,4- bonds in starch, leading to the decomposition of starch into soluble dextrins and oligosaccharides. Unlike starch, dextrins and oligosaccharides are easily soluble in water and are therefore easier to remove from the fabrics during wash.
Lipases Lipases accelerate the breakdown of tri-glycerides lipids into fatty acids and glycerol and are applied in laundry detergents to improve the removal of body stains on collars and cuffs and non-mineral oil and fat, such as lipstick, butter, vegetable oil, and others, from fabric surfaces. Fatty material trapped inside cotton fibers can give rise to discolored spots on laundry and cannot be removed effectively at medium-to-low washing temperatures without using lipase. With lipases the trapped fatty material trapped in the cotton fibers is hydrolyzed to less hydrophobic substances which are easier to remove.
Cellulases Cellulases are used in laundry detergents to obtain cleaning and color care and improve overall cleanness. Cellulases also help maintain the brightness of colors on cotton fibers by reducing build-up of fuzz and pills on knitted garments that occurs due to normal wear and washing.
These microfibrils trap particulate dirt, for instance from outdoor soiling, during the wash. This prevents whites from staying white and makes colored and striped clothes look dull. Cellulases cleave off such damaged microfibrils and releases any captured dirt particles, preventing particulate soil from depositing and preventing fabric graying. Not only can bristly cellulose fibers attract particulate soils during the wash, they can also make it more difficult for the other ingredients in the detergent to remove stains.
Cellulases aid primary stain removal by modifying the surface of cellulosic fibers and fabrics, making it easier for the stain to come loose.
Cutting off fibrils that bind particulate soils also helps rejuvenate clothes, making them appear whiter and newer. Mannanases Mannanases remove mannan stains. Mannanases break down mannans and effectively remove food stains containing guar gum or locust bean gum, thereby, increasing in-depth cleaning by removing the adhesive mannan. Incomplete removal of these types of stains may result in fabric graying. During wash, Mannaway cleaves the b-1,4-linkages of mannans through hydrolysis, thus breaking down the gum polymer into smaller, more water-soluble carbohydrate fragments that can be siphoned out of the washing machine during the spin cycle.
During wash, pectinases alter the pectin structure by breaking the pectin backbone, and making them easier to remove from the fabrics during wash. Pectinases can provide unique stain removal benefits on a wide range of pectin based stains from fresh fruits, such as tomatoes, oranges, bananas and berries. Extracted pectin is used in various processed foods, such as tomato sauces, jams, jellies, low-fat dairy products, and can cause the same type of staining potential in clothes.
This means that pectinases cleave the pectin into smaller molecular fragments to make it easier to remove during wash. Many of the pectin-based stains, such as those from jams, jellies, berries, and processed tomato, are in general difficult to remove and bleach only masks these stains, thus increasing the risk of soil redeposition.
Pectinases fully remove the stains by degrading the pectin, ensuring that clothes are really clean. Production methods Enzymes were initially produced by extraction from glands of various animals; however, modern enzyme production is done through fermentation of various fungi and bacteria. The steps for production are fermentation, recovery, and standardization. Protein engineering and genetic modification of the production organism are employed in the industry to maximize the performance of the enzymes in conditions that may not be typically conducive, and improve production yields in the manufacturing process.
Fermentation to produce industrial enzymes starts with a vial of dried or frozen microorganisms called a production strain. This production strain is selected to produce large amounts of the enzyme s of interest. Through multiples fermentation steps, where the microorganism is kept at optimal pH, temperature, and nutrient conditions, the desired amount of enzyme is produced.
When the main fermentation is complete, the mixture of cells, nutrients, and enzymes, referred to as the broth, is ready for filtration and purification. Following fermentation is the recovery step. A recovery process typically consists of a pretreatment followed by a primary separation of the enzyme from the biomass. Afterwards, the enzyme is concentrated by removal of water, and unwanted impurities are removed in a purification step. Following recovery is a formulation or standardization step.
Although much effort focuses on finding the right enzyme molecules for a given application, formulation plays a big role in the final use and success of the product. A new enzyme molecule with excellent performance can fail in the market if the enzyme is not stable during transportation and storage.
The right formulation can remove these shortcomings, and the importance of having the right formulation should not therefore be underestimated. The enzyme industry can cover a wide range of enzyme formulations, ranging from liquid products and various forms of solid products to immobilized enzymes. Common formulations for the detergent industry are: Granulates — dust-free handling Granulates are considered the industry standard for the detergent industry and the formulations against which all other producers measure themselves.
They are produced using a unique combination of high-shear granulation and various coating technologies. This results in an effective encapsulation of the enzyme, which isolates it from the environment until the moment the detergent product is dissolved into the washing solution.
In addition to ensuring optimal stability of the enzyme while being stored within the detergent, the granulate form also prevents undesired exposures.
Most detergent enzymes are available in a liquid formulation. The key quality parameters for solid products are typically low dust, particle size, and stability of the enzyme activity. For liquid products, the enzymatic, physical, and microbial stabilities are the three main focus points in the product development.
Sustainable Solution Enzymes are an excellent solution for improving the sustainability profile of detergents. Since one globular enzyme protein is able to work on many molecules of substrate, small amounts of enzymes can offset larger amounts of conventional chemical ingredients.
Modern formulas now take advantage of this benefit, typically incorporating more types of enzymes which allow some reduction in the amounts of other ingredients. In addition to high cleaning performance, consumers also benefit with more-compact products, and therefore reduced environmental impact. This has benefited consumers by allowing the formulation of milder and safer detergent products. There is no standard formula for what amount of enzyme is required to improve the cleaning potential of a detergent or to substitute any other more harmful ingredients.
However, that can be determined with the assistance of an enzyme manufacturer. Increasing the sustainability profile of enzyme products, is the fact that they are naturally occurring and not derived from petroleum based ingredients. Health and Safety Through many years of testing it has been proven that enzymes have a very safe toxicological profile, lending to their sustainability profile. Enzymes are not mutagenic and not clastogenic. They are not reproductive or developmental toxins and have a low toxicity to aquatic systems.
As mentioned previously, enzymes have the potential to cause inhalation allergy in the occupational setting. This would occur only when the enzyme product is not handled appropriately, and if appropriate personal protective equipment is not employed. Enzyme manufacturers are able to guide formulators on what type of equipment should be used and how best to avoid exposures that may have negative effects.
In addition, cleaning product formulators are strongly recommended to incorporate enzyme safety programs as part of their overall industrial hygiene programs in order to avoid any risks in their manufacturing plants. Responsible enzyme manufacturers should provide their customers with assistance in developing their enzyme safety handeling programs as well as guidance in evaluating safety of end-use products.
This website is designed to inform you about Cleaning Products. The history, product types, ingredients, processes and so much more! Is Green More Clean? Enzyme Science Enzymes Enzymes are long-chain proteins that serve as natural catalysts, meaning that they allow chemical reactions to occur rapidly and efficiently.
Liquid formulations — convenient to handle on both small and large scale Most detergent enzymes are available in a liquid formulation. Enzymes are stable at moderate pH and temperature.
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To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Hande Savas.
INDUSTRIAL CLASSIFICATION Used in the 2005 Population Census of Japan
The classification shown in Table However, this classification shall not preclude the designation of more specific requirements in individual cheese standards. Zoom Table Zoom Fig. Cheesemaking involves a number of main stages that are common to most types of cheese.
Need to remove tomato sauce, grease, ink, or other tricky spots? Get rid of your toughest stains using our stain guide. The ingredients in your cleaning products fall into several different categories, added to provide different characteristics and cleaning functions. Search CPISI for safety assessment data from publicly available data sources on ingredients used in cleaning products. The alcohols used in light duty and liquid laundry detergents are isopropanol or ethanol ethyl alcohol. These alcohols are used at low levels in liquid detergent formulations to control viscosity, to act as a solvent for other ingredients, and to provide resistance to low and freezing temperatures encountered in shipping, warehousing, and use. Isopropanol is used in liquid hard surface cleaners. Higher molecular weight alcohols are used as raw materials for alcohol ethoxylates, one type of nonionic surfactant. Alcohol ethoxylates are relatively low sudsing. They possess greater resistance to water hardness than many other surfactants, i.
Soap is a combination of animal fat or plant oil and caustic soda. When dissolved in water, it breaks dirt away from surfaces. Through the ages soap has been used to cleanse, to cure skin sores, to dye hair, and as a salve or skin ointment.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. You're using an out-of-date version of Internet Explorer. Log In Sign Up. Prashant Sakharkar. It is found that this waste is containing a quantity of free fatty acids which can be converted into potassium or sodium salt of fatty acids i. The waste in oil mills causing a serious problem of its disposal. We have used this waste for production of soap which is very important for maintaining personal hygiene and the general cleanliness of the environment. The soap prepared in this project work is an organic soap. It has become a healthier alternative for conventional soap, since it cleans by acting as an agent between water and dirt.
US3917601A - Sulfosuccinate derivatives as detergent builders - Google Patents
Riegel's Handbook of Industrial Chemistry pp Cite as. The mixture of fat and wood ashes that reacted to form soap was carried by rain to the banks of the Tiber River and was found as a clay deposit useful for cleaning clothes. The boiling of fats with ashes was recorded as early as B. Commercial soap-making was a widespread art in the Middle Ages in Europe. The invention of the soda ash process by LeBlanc in , and the discovery by Chevreul in that soap was composed of a mixture of fatty acids paved the way to modern soap-manufacturing processess. Skip to main content.
Soap, Fatty Acids, and Synthetic Detergents
Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. E-Book anzeigen. Psychology Press Amazon. Services and the Knowledge-based Economy. Mark Boden , Ian Miles. First published in Over the past two decades, the service sector have increased dramatically and now occupy the largest share of the economy of advanced industrial societies. Certain business services are regularly cited as evidence for the emergence of a "knowledge economy".
WO2013009605A1 - Metallic soap compositions for various applications - Google Patents
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Palm oil is an edible vegetable oil, high in saturated fats, derived from the fruit of the oil palm tree. The palm fruit yields two distinct oils — palm oil and palm kernel oil. Palm oil is extracted from the pulp of the fruit, is edible and used primarily in food products. Palm kernel oil is extracted from the seed of the fruit and is used mainly in the manufacture of soaps and cosmetics, while palm kernel expeller PKE is used as a feed for livestock and as biofuel for generating electricity.
I am pleased to report that the Group performed well in FY despite declining commodity prices and volatility in the soybeans market arising from the US-China trade tensions. The Group recorded a Revenue increased 2.
На первых порах Николь не сумела связать это чувство непосредственно с внушительным зрелищем. Впрочем, она вполне понимала, что хочет поговорить с другом, лучше всего с Ричардом, - разделить с кем-то свои переживания.
И вдруг вспомнила несколько строчек из поэмы Бениты Гарсиа. Открыв своей портативный компьютер, она быстро отыскала все стихотворение.