Glass can be a dangerous material. When standard annealed glass breaks, it forms potentially lethal shards and splinters. The reputation for dangerous fragility is however fast disappearing. Glass manufacturers have developed a range of safety glasses adding strength and integrity to this beautiful building material and allowing glass to be used in areas where safety is critical and in unprecedented situations. Security is now also possible with glass. A range of high performance glasses allows light and vision into areas formerly excluded from natural light.
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Building GlassVIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Understanding Different Types of Glass
Bathroom Fixtures. Introduction to Construction Project Management. Learn everything about building construction. Glass has been a fascinating material to humankind since it was first made in about BC. At first thought to possess magical properties, glass has come a long way.
It is one of the most versatile and oldest materials in the building industry. From its humble beginnings as a window pane in luxury houses of Pompeii to sophisticated structural members in new age buildings, its role in architecture has evolved over the years.
In prehistoric times, Obsidian Naturally occurring glass found near volcanic regions and fulgurite glass formed naturally after lightning strikes sand were used to make weapons. Glass blowing was discovered in the 1st century in Europe, this revolutionized the glass making industry. The technique spread throughout the Roman Empire. Production of Clear glass, by introduction of manganese dioxide, saw glass being used for architectural purposes.
Cast glass windows began to appear in the most important buildings and villas in Rome and Pompeii. Over the next 1, years glass making spread through all of Europe and Middle East. In 7th century Anglo Saxon glass was used in churches and cathedrals By 11th century sheet glass was made by the crown glass process. In this process, the glassblower would spin molten glass at the end of a rod until it flattened into a disk.
The disk would then be cut into panes. By 13th century, this technique was perfected in Venice. Stain glass windows were used in gothic renaissance and baroque architecture from the 11th to the 18th century. The examples of stunning patterns created by using colorful glass are immortalized by great artists all over the world.
The Crown glass process was used up to the midth century. These were completely flat and did not have any optical distortions. But glass was still an item of luxury as it took large resources, brilliant skill and immense energy to be produced. In Pilkington and Bickerstaff introduced the revolutionary float glass process to the world. This method gave the sheet uniform thickness and very flat surfaces. Modern windows are made from float glass. From the beginning of 20th century modern architecture has been instrumental in mass production of concrete, glass and steel buildings in the factories we call cities.
This ideology helped accommodate housing needs of the burgeoning middle class. Glass and steel construction have become the symbol of development in many countries, where people tend to see these buildings as symbols of affluence and luxury. Once a rare and prized art, manufacturing glass has become a common industry thanks to the Pilkington process. Traditionally glass was made by blowing liquid glass derived by melting sand calcium oxide and sodium carbonate to extremely high temperatures and the cooling the liquid to the desired shape.
Since a few thousand years the recipe to make glass has been the same. Pilkington process: Large quantities of raw materials clear sand, calcium oxide and sodium carbonate are brought to the glass production plant. They are then weighed and mixed in the right proportion. Certain admixtures are added to the batch to give the glass appropriate proprieties or color. The mixture is then heated in a gas fired furnace or electric smelter, pot furnace or kiln. Quartz sand without additives becomes glass at a temperature of 2, degrees Celsius Adding sodium carbonate soda reduces the temperature needed to make glass to 1, degrees Celsius.
A homogeneous mixture of molten glass is then formed. This mixture is then floated on molten tin to form glass of desired thickness. After the hot end of the process is over, the glass is set to cool.
The way in which the glass is cooled determines its strength. It has to be cooled after maintaining a suitable temperature i. If it cooled over an extremely short duration of time the glass can become too brittle to handle. Annealing glass is critical to its durability Glass making is an energy extensive process.
One tonne of glass production requires 4 gigajoules of energy. That is as much energy as a wind mill produces in a day! This much energy can also be used to light over homes.
Albeit they are not constructed with glass. Its transparency can be permanently altered by adding admixtures to the initial batch mix. By the advent of technology clear glass panels used in buildings can be made opaque. Electro chromatic glazing U value : The U-value is the measure of how much heat is transferred through the window. The lower the U-value the better the insulation properties of the glass— the better it is at keeping the heat or cold out.
This trapping leads to more heating and a higher resultant temperature. It can be blown, drawn or pressed. It is possible to obtain glass with diversified properties- clear, colorless, diffused and stained.
Glass can also bewelded by fusion. Unlike the original single glazing or old double glazing, energy-efficient glazing incorporates coated low-emissivity glass to prevent heat escaping through the windows.
The air barrier also enhances acoustic control. Float Glass : Float glass is also called soda lime glass or clear glass. This is produced by annealing the molten glass and is clear and flat. Its modulus of rupture is psi. Stronger than Rocky Balboa taking punches from psi punches man Ivan Drago.
It is available in standard thickness ranging from 2mm to 20mm. It has too much transparency and can cause glare. It is used in making ca nopies, shop fronts, glass blocks, railing partitions, etc. Tinted Glass: Certain additions to the glass batch mix can add color to the clear glass without compromising its strength. Iron oxide is added to give glass a green tint; sulphar in different concentrations can make the glass yellow, red or black. Copper sulphate can turn it blue.
Toughened Glass This type of glass is tempered, may have distortions and low visibility but it breaks into small dice-like pieces at modulus of rupture of psi. Hence it is used in making fire resistant doors etc. They are available in same weight and thickness range as float glass.
Laminated Glass: This type of glass is made by sandwiching glass panels within a protective layer. It is heavier than normal glass and may cause optical distortions as well. Used in glass facades, aquariums, bridges, staircases, floor slabs, etc.
Shatterproof glass : By adding a polyvinyl butyral layer, shatter proof glass is made. This type of glass does not from sharp edged pieces even when broken. Used in skylight, window, flooring, etc Extra clean glass: This type of glass is hydrophilic i.
The water moves over them without leaving any marks and photocatylitic i. Double Glazed Units: These are made by providing air gap between two glass panes in order to reduce the heat loss and gain. Green, energy efficient glass can reduce this impact. Chromatic glass: This type of glass can control daylight and transparency effectively. These glass are available in three forms- photochromatic light sensitive lamination on glass , thermochromatic heat sensitive lamination on glass and electrochromatic light sensitive glass the transparency of which can be controlled by electricity switch.
It can be used in meeting rooms and ICUs Glass wool: Glass wool is a thermal insulation that consists of intertwined and flexible glass fibers, which causes it to "package" air, and consequently make good insulating materials. Glass wool can be used as filler or insulators in buildings, also for soundproofing. Glass blocks: Hollow glass wall blocks are manufactured as two separate halves and, while the glass is still molten, the two pieces are pressed together and annealed.
The resulting glass blocks will have a partial vacuum at the hollow center. Glass bricks provide visual obscuration while admitting light. Polycarbonate: This elastic is times stronger than glass, is resistant to most chemicals, is twice as lighter than class, has high abrasion and impact resistance. It can transmit as much light as glass without many distortions. Applications include window, green house glazing etc. Acrylic: Acrylic is made of thermo plasticsis weather resistant, is 5 times stronger than glass but is prone to scratches.
It has excellent optics, is softer than glass but can accumulate a lot of dust. This is extensively used in to make playhouses, green house etc.
Glass-reinforced plastics are also used to produce house building components such as roofing laminate, canopies etc. The material is light and easy to handle. It is used in the construction of composite housing and insulation to reduce heat loss. ETFE : Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene is a plastic with high strength and corrosion resistance. It has high energy radiation resistance properties, it is strong, self cleaning and recyclable. The versatility of glass keeps on increasing as scientists find new applications to this wonder material.
Glass is now being used in the building industry as insulation material, structural component, external glazing material, cladding material; it is used to make delicate looking fenestrations on facades as well as conventional windows.
Combining transparency, durability and design, sustainable habitat glass contributes to the aesthetic appearance and energy efficiency of residential and tertiary buildings while also improving user comfort. The performance of glazed walls depends on three criteria: thermal insulation, input of natural light and control of solar gain. Effective thermal insulation ensures occupant comfort in summer and winter, and eradicates the cold wall effect. CLIMATOP LUX triple-glazing combines the thermal insulation of triple-glazing while allowing the same solar gain as high energy efficiency double-glazing: its energy performance is similar to that of a solid wall.
Interior finishes and space-division systems define the living spaces within residential buildings with a range of both natural and synthetic materials. The most widely used wall finish is gypsum board , a prefabricated form of traditional wet plaster. Wet gypsum plaster is cast between paper facings to form large panels that are nailed to light timber or metal frameworks. The joints between the panels are filled with a hard-setting resin compound , giving a smooth seamless surface that has considerable fire resistance.
Decorative glass finishes
It provides solutions to all problems pertaining to houses right from concept to completion. The history of glass goes centuries back where we find the reference of naturally occurring glass during Stone Age period. Glass was then used for making weapons. Later, with passage of time, it was used for making vessels, mosaic tiles, decorative objects etc. Conventionally glass was only used for light-picking. The further advancement in technology lead glass to be adopted as a decorative element in many houses and also in multi-storey buildings. But being decorative element of building was not adequate.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Use of Glass in Construction Facade Works - Normal Glass,Toughened Glass,Laminated Glass, SGU, DGU
Polished cast mirror glass and drawn window glass were the most common types of glass used in houses in the s and early s, until the rise of double glazing. The British glass manufacturer Pilkington developed a new production process to create glass with a smooth and uniform surface, called float glass. The first example of double vitrage in an apartment building in Brussels was published in the architectural press. The first example of Thermopane double glazing in an apartment building in Brussels was published in the architectural press. Glaverbel advertised the application of Thermopane glazing in renovations. From the s onwards, strips of aluminium were used to maintain the space between the two panes of glass in double glazing. The production of window glass in Belgium started in in a factory in the valley of the Sambre. From this small start, the number of glass companies increased steadily, while they also became larger, more professional, and better equipped. The most striking feature of the glass industry in the post-war period, however, was not quantity but its versatility: an increasing range of products became available between and , from regular window glass and mirror glass, to decorative cast glass, safety glass, coloured glass, insulating glass, etc.
glass and glazing
With over 70 available patterns, use these decorative glass finishes to control light and privacy while enhancing interior aesthetics. Add the high-end, beautiful, artistic look of dichroic glass without the high-end cost. Use 3M Glass Films to significantly reduce project costs compared to using architectural glass. Please include the product description name and pattern number.
Flexible, creative and technologically-advanced surface finishing solutions by 3M Architectural Finishes. When you want that extra level of detail in your custom graphics, logos or windows displays, this is the choice for you. The color shifting properties give your projects an unexpected dynamic visual that makes them stand apart from the norm. A sustainable design solution to refresh your surfaces and fixtures with less downtime and less waste. These easy to install films are conformable to a variety of surfaces. Exterior renovations made simple with minimum downtime, less labor and waste than traditional construction. E-series finishes offer environmental benefits. In addition to bringing new life to existing assets and reducing waste, they are non-vinyl. Partnering with 3M helped these organizations achieve their unique design objectives. View 3M architectural design solutions in action, from hospitality and retail to health care and more.
Together, We See Further.
Saint-Gobain designs, manufactures and distributes materials and solutions which are key ingredients in the wellbeing of each of us and the future of all. They can be found everywhere in our living places and our daily life: in buildings, transportation, infrastructure and in many industrial applications. A key ingredient in the wellbeing of each of us and the future of all. They provide comfort, performance and safety while addressing the challenges of sustainable construction, resource efficiency and climate change. They can be found everywhere in our living places and our daily life: in buildings, transportation, infrastructure and in Many industrial applications. They provide comfort, performance and safety while addressing the challenges of sustainable sustainable, resource efficiency and climate change.
Commercial Glass Doors
A variety of entrance options including multiple door styles, stile widths, heights, glass types insulated, impact, insulated-impact , panic devices and hardware help solve any entrance dilemma you face. All Aldora aluminum door frames are factory pre-glazed to save you time and headaches. From oversized to cabana styles, Aldora has the glass impact doors needed for hurricane resistance in residential and commercial spaces. View Impact Glass Doors and Entrances. When you need the adaptability that comes with commercial glass entry doors, Aldora provides the options you need.
Ahmedabad, Gujarat. Ludhiana, Punjab. Verified Supplier Company Video. Ghaziabad, Uttar Pradesh.
The aesthetic, technical and energy properties of AGC glass make its scope of applications practically unlimited: from external glazing to interior decoration and industrial uses. With the richness of the ranges, architects and interior designers alike will find a material that gives shape to their creative inspiration and tames light, while assuring comfort for the building occupants and actively protecting the environment. Market share ranking for main products Float glass Global No.
Introduction Glass has been described as the 'greatest building material known to man' and is a building material with outstanding durability and it plays a crucial part in creating the visual appearance of all buildings. Woods Glass are also considered the market specialists in Total Vision Solutions - on which Thermosash work closely with the engineering and where applicable, integration into curtainwall systems. There are many recorded instances of the wrong specification being applied to projects - working with a company that understands the needs is important. Float Glass annealed - The float glass process is the most common process of production.
Trends in residential siding include color, mixed materials, and innovative finishes like charred wood, also known as shou sugi ban, an ancient Japanese practice. Sometimes art museums house works of art, and sometimes the museum itself is a work of art. The Aspen Art Museum, designed by Pritzker Prize-winning Japanese architect Shigeru Ban, did not disappoint onlookers when it opened in the summer of Find out more about this project on ArchDaily.