Colleen M. Krauss, Appellant, v. Chesterton Co. Green Refractories, Inc. Krauss, Executor of the Estate of Henry M. Superior Court of Pennsylvania.
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KRAUSS v. TRANE U.S. INC.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: FIRESTONE WORLD BESTOS COMPANY ASBESTOS BRAKE PADS PROMO FILM "STOPPING POWER" 1950s TRUCKS 65344
Fibrous asbestos on muscovite. Blue asbestos crocidolite from Wittenoom, Western Australia. The ruler is 1 cm. They all have in common their asbestiform habit, long, thin fibrous crystals. The inhalation of asbestos fibres can cause serious illnesses, including malignant lung cancer , mesothelioma a formerly rare cancer strongly associated with exposure to asbestos , and asbestosis a type of pneumoconiosis.
Since January 1, , the European Union has banned all use of asbestos  and extraction, manufacture and processing of asbestos products. For environmental samples, one must normally resort to electron microscopy for positive identification.
However, the latter techniques cannot readily identify the smallest, most hazardous, fibers, because they are limited to PM10 particulate size evaluation, which completely ignores ultrafine particles UFPs. Asbestos became increasingly popular among manufacturers and builders in the late 19th century because of its sound absorption, average tensile strength, and its resistance to heat, electrical and chemical damage.
When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibres are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats. Asbestos was used in some products for its heat resistance, and in the past was used on electric oven and hotplate wiring for its electrical insulation at elevated temperature, and in buildings for its flame-retardant and insulating properties, tensile strength , flexibility, and resistance to chemicals.
Six minerals are defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency as "asbestos" including that belonging to the serpentine class chrysotile and that belonging to the amphibole class amosite , crocidolite , tremolite , anthophyllite and actinolite.
There is an important distinction to be made between serpentine and amphibole asbestos due to differences in their chemical composition and their degree of potency as a health hazard when inhaled. Chrysotile , CAS No. Chrysotile fibers are curly as opposed to fibers from amosite, crocidolite, tremolite, actinolite, and anthophyllite which are needlelike.
It is more flexible than amphibole types of asbestos; it can be spun and woven into fabric. The most common use is within corrugated asbestos cement roof sheets typically used for outbuildings, warehouses and garages. It is also found as flat sheets used for ceilings and sometimes for walls and floors. Numerous other items have been made containing chrysotile including brake linings, cloth behind fuses for fire protection , pipe insulation, floor tiles, and rope seals for boilers.
Amosite , CAS No. It is found most frequently as a fire retardant in thermal insulation products and ceiling tiles. Crocidolite , CAS No. It is the fibrous form of the amphibole riebeckite. Notes: chrysotile commonly occurs as soft friable fibers. Asbestiform amphibole may also occur as soft friable fibers but some varieties such as amosite are commonly straighter. All forms of asbestos are fibrillar in that they are composed of fibers with widths less than 1 micrometer that occur in bundles and have very long lengths.
Asbestos with particularly fine fibers is also referred to as "amianthus". Amphiboles such as tremolite have a crystal structure containing strongly bonded ribbonlike silicate anion polymers that extend the length of the crystal. Serpentine chrysotile has a sheetlike silicate anion which is curved and which rolls up like a carpet to form the fibre. Other regulated asbestos minerals, such as tremolite asbestos, CAS No. Grace and Company. These minerals are thought to be no less harmful than tremolite, amosite, or crocidolite, but since they are not regulated, they are referred to as "asbestiform" rather than asbestos although may still be related to diseases and hazardous.
In , 2. Russia was the largest producer with about The ancients already recognized certain hazards of the material. The Greek geographer Strabo and the Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder noted that the material damaged lungs of slaves who wove it into cloth. Wealthy Persians , who bought asbestos imported over the Hindu Kush , amazed guests by cleaning the cloth by simply exposing it to fire.
While traveling to China, Marco Polo described observing miraculous garments that were cleaned by being placed in fires [ citation needed ]. These garments were likely made from asbestos [ citation needed ]. Some archeologists believe that ancients made shrouds of asbestos, wherein they burned the bodies of their kings, in order to preserve only their ashes, and prevent their being mixed with those of wood or other combustible materials commonly used in funeral pyres.
Although asbestos causes skin to itch upon contact, ancient literature indicates that it was prescribed for diseases of the skin, and particularly for the itch.
It is possible that they used the term asbestos for alumen plumosum , because the two terms have often been confused throughout history. Asbestos became more widespread during the industrial revolution; in the it was used as insulation in the U. Development of the first commercial asbestos mine began in in the Appalachian foothills of Quebec. Approximately , people in the United States have died, or will die, from asbestos exposure related to ship building.
In the Hampton Roads area, a shipbuilding center, mesothelioma occurrence is seven times the national rate. There were approximately 4. Asbestos fibers were once used in automobile brake pads , shoes, and clutch discs. Since the mids, a majority of brake pads, new or replacement, have been manufactured instead with linings made of ceramic, carbon, metallic and Aramid fiber Twaron or Kevlar —the same material used in bulletproof vests.
Kent , the first filtered cigarette on the market, used crocidolite asbestos in its "Micronite" filter from to The first documented death related to asbestos was in In the early s researchers began to notice a large number of early deaths and lung problems in asbestos mining towns.
The first diagnosis of asbestosis was made in the UK in By the s, the UK regulated ventilation and made asbestosis an excusable work related disease, about ten years sooner than the U. The United States government and asbestos industry have been criticized for not acting quickly enough to inform the public of dangers, and to reduce public exposure.
In the late s court documents proved that asbestos industry officials knew of asbestos dangers since the s and had concealed them from the public. In Japan, particularly after World War II , asbestos was used in the manufacture of ammonium sulfate for purposes of rice production, sprayed upon the ceilings, iron skeletons, and walls of railroad cars and buildings during the s , and used for energy efficiency reasons as well.
Production of asbestos in Japan peaked in and went through ups and downs until about , when production began to drop severely. In Australia, asbestos was widely used in construction and other industries between and From the s there was increasing concern about the dangers of asbestos and its use was phased out.
Mining ceased in , The use of asbestos was phased out in and banned entirely in The dangers of asbestos are now well known in Australia and there is help and support for sufferers from asbestosis or mesothelioma. Serpentine minerals have a sheet or layered structure. Chrysotile is the only asbestos mineral in the serpentine group.
In the United States , chrysotile has been the most commonly used type of asbestos. According to the U. Chrysotile is often present in a wide variety of products and materials, including:. A household heat spreader for cooking on gas stoves, made of asbestos probably s; "Amiante pur" is French for "Pure Asbestos".
In the European Union and Australia it has recently been banned as a potential health hazard  and is not used at all. Japan is moving in the same direction, but more slowly. Revelations that hundreds of workers had died in Japan over the previous few decades from diseases related to asbestos sparked a scandal in mid Five types of asbestos are found in the amphibole group: amosite, crocidolite, anthophyllite, tremolite, and actinolite. Amosite, the second most likely type to be found in buildings, according to the U.
Amosite and crocidolite were formerly used in many products until the early s. The use of all types of asbestos in the amphibole group was banned in much of the Western world by the mids, and by Japan in These products were mainly:.
Chrysotile asbestos, like all other forms of asbestos, has produced tumors in animals. Mesotheliomas have been observed in people who were occupationally exposed to chrysotile, family members of the occupationally exposed, and residents who lived close to asbestos factories and mines. Tremolite often contaminates chrysotile asbestos, thus creating an additional hazard. Asbestos exposure becomes a health concern when high concentrations of asbestos fibers are inhaled over a long time period.
Disease is very unlikely to result from a single, high-level exposure, or from a short period of exposure to lower levels. Asbestos fibres SEM micrograph. Most respirable asbestos fibers are invisible to the unaided human eye because their size is about 3. These crystals thus have three cleavage planes , just as other minerals and gemstones have. But in their case, there are two cleavage planes that are much weaker than the third direction. When sufficient force is applied, they tend to break along their weakest directions, resulting in a linear fragmentation pattern and hence a fibrous form.
This fracture process can keep occurring and one larger asbestos fiber can ultimately become the source of hundreds of much thinner and smaller fibers. As asbestos fibers get smaller and lighter, they more easily become airborne and human respiratory exposures can result. Fibers will eventually settle but may be re-suspended by air currents or other movement.
Friability of a product containing asbestos means that it is so soft and weak in structure that it can be broken with simple finger crushing pressure. Friable materials are of the most initial concern because of their ease of damage. The forces or conditions of usage that come into intimate contact with most non-friable materials containing asbestos are substantially higher than finger pressure.
Asbestos can be found naturally in the air outdoors and in some drinkable water, including water from natural sources.
Many populated areas are in proximity to shallow, natural deposits which occur in 50 of 58 California counties and in 19 other U. In one study, data was collected from 3, mesothelioma patients in California and men with prostate cancer , a malignancy not known to be related to asbestos. The study found a correlation between the incidence of mesotheliomas and the distance a patient lived from known deposits of rock likely to include asbestos; the correlation was not present when the incidence of prostate cancer was compared with the same distances.
According to the study, risk of mesothelioma declined by 6 percent for every 10 kilometers that an individual had lived away from a likely asbestos source. Portions of El Dorado County, California are known to contain natural asbestos formations near the surface.
The study found that many amphibole particles in the area meet the counting rule criteria used by the EPA for chemical and morphological limits, but do not meet morphological requirements for commercial-grade-asbestos.
Asbestine fabric is the cloth made on the special weaving loom by an interlacing of asbetovy threads, this fabric possesses fine heat-insulating properties and parameters. Are applied as thermal insulation, diaphragms at water electrolysis, and also to production of heat-insulating materials, asbotekstolit, the rubberized stuffings, pro-masonry rings and cuffs. Primenyaetsya:dlya of production of asbotekstolit and products of industrial equipment stuffings, sleeves, pro-masonry rings, cuffs and as heat-insulating material. We created a Personal Account for you to make the process of buying faster and easier in the future.
A Glossary of Terms and Definitions for the Industrial Paint & Coating Industry:
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Fabrics asbestos Ukraine
Abacus - The flat slab on top of a column capital, supporting the architrave. Abandonment - The failure of both parties to a contract to abide by its terms. Abatement - Involves either removal of the painted surface, covering the painted surface with an impermeable surface, or covering surface with heavy-duty coating encapsulant. Abattoir - A slaughterhouse; a place where animals are butchered for food.
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Asbestine AT-2 fabric
All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals , each fiber being composed of many microscopic 'fibrils' that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and other processes. Asbestos is an excellent electrical insulator and is highly resistant to heat, so for many years it was used as a building material. Inhalation of asbestos fibres can lead to various serious lung conditions, including asbestosis and cancer.
InspectAPedia tolerates no conflicts of interest. We have no relationship with advertisers, products, or services discussed at this website. This document assists building buyers, owners or inspectors who need to identify asbestos materials or probable-asbestos in buildings by simple visual inspection. We provide photographs of asbestos containing materials and descriptive text of asbestos insulation and other asbestos-containing products to permit identification of definite, probable, or possible asbestos materials in buildings. Asbestos is safe and legal to remain in homes or public buildings as long as the asbestos materials are in good condition and the asbestos can not be released into the air. Here we provide a master list of manufactured products that contain asbestos. Our list of asbestos-containing materials is sorted by alphabetically by product or use. Contact us by posting a question or comment at the end of this page if you cannot find information you need. Asbestos uses was classed by Lindell into thirteen classes including. The actual range of asbestos-containing products and materials is enormous and no categorization, including that by Lindell is all-inclusive.
Dictionary of Ceramic Science and Engineering
AskDefine Define amianthus Printer Friendly. English Noun a type of asbestos with long, soft, thin fiber s. Asbestos is a group of mineral s with long, thin fibrous crystal s. The word "asbestos" is derived from a Greek adjective meaning inextinguishable. The Greeks termed asbestos the "miracle mineral" because of its soft and pliant properties, as well as its ability to withstand heat. Asbestos became increasingly popular among manufacturers and builders in the late 19th century due to its resistance to heat, electricity and chemical damage, its sound absorption and tensile strength. When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats. Asbestos is used in brake shoes and gasket s for its heat resistance, and in the past was used on electric oven and hotplate wiring for its electrical insulation at elevated temperature, and in buildings for its flame-retardant and insulating properties, tensile strength , flexibility, and resistance to chemicals. Unfortunately, this "miracle material" is now known to be highly toxic.
Fibrous asbestos on muscovite. Blue asbestos crocidolite from Wittenoom, Western Australia. The ruler is 1 cm. They all have in common their asbestiform habit, long, thin fibrous crystals. The inhalation of asbestos fibres can cause serious illnesses, including malignant lung cancer , mesothelioma a formerly rare cancer strongly associated with exposure to asbestos , and asbestosis a type of pneumoconiosis. Since January 1, , the European Union has banned all use of asbestos  and extraction, manufacture and processing of asbestos products. For environmental samples, one must normally resort to electron microscopy for positive identification. However, the latter techniques cannot readily identify the smallest, most hazardous, fibers, because they are limited to PM10 particulate size evaluation, which completely ignores ultrafine particles UFPs.
Asbestos mining existed more than 4, years ago, but large-scale mining began at the end of the 19th century, when manufacturers and builders began using asbestos for its desirable physical properties:  sound absorption , average tensile strength , resistance to fire , heat, electricity, and affordability. It was used in such applications as electrical insulation for hotplate wiring and in building insulation. When asbestos is used for its resistance to fire or heat, the fibers are often mixed with cement or woven into fabric or mats.
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Роботы сообщили Элли время следующей встречи, а также что Ричард понимает, насколько опасно подобное предприятие. - Мы никогда бы не рискнули на это, - сказала робот Жанна, - но в том, что твою мать осудят на казнь, нельзя сомневаться.
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У этой планеты будет одиночная стационарная звезда, атмосфера с необходимой климатической изменчивостью, все химические ингредиенты, нужные для жизни.
Хочешь, смотри сама: я включаю подпрограмму, которая пробегает периодическую систему и показывает информацию о количестве различных атомов в этой кипящей материи.